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Applications of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) Tools in Microbiology of Infectious Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451838 Year: Pages: 223 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-183-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Epidemiology is a discipline intended to systematically investigate, and ideally quantify, disease dynamics in populations (Perez, 2015). Epidemiological assessmentsmay be divided into four large areas, namely, (a) identification and characterization of a pathogen, (b) development of systems for detection of cases, (c) descriptive epidemiology and quantification of disease patterns, and (d) advanced analytical methods to design intervention strategies. Briefly, there is an initial need for understanding the pathogeny of a disease and condition, which may also include experimental studies and development of new models of infection and proliferation under different conditions. Subsequently, such knowledgemay be applied to support the identification of cases, which typically includes the design, evaluation, and validation of diagnostic tests. Diseasemay then be quantified in a population, leading to the identification of patterns and application of molecular characterization techniques to understand disease spread, and ultimately to identify factors preventing or promoting disease. Finally, those factors may be incorporated into advanced quantitative methods and epidemiological models, which are used to design and evaluate strategies aimed at preventing, controlling, or eliminating disease in the population.Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in the application of science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM) tools and approaches intended to enhance such analytical epidemiology process, with the ultimate goal of supporting disease prevention, control, and eradication. This eBook comprises a series of research articles that, through current state-of-the-art scientific knowledge on the application of STEM tools to the microbiology of infectious diseases, demonstrate their usefulness at the various components of an integral epidemiological approach, divided into the four large components of (a) experimental studies, (b) novel diagnostic techniques, (c) epidemiological characterization, and (d) population modeling and intervention.

Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease: The Present and the Future

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450411 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-041-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by significant cognitive deficits, behavioral changes, sleep disorders and loss of functional autonomy. AD represents the main cause of dementia and has become a major public health issue. In addition, the number of patients suffering from AD is growing rapidly as the population ages worldwide. Memory impairment is usually the earliest clinical and core symptom of this disease. The diagnosis at a late clinical stage is relatively easy. However, a delay in the diagnosis is damageable for the handling of patients in terms of optimal medical and social care. The actual interest of the scientific head-ways is to optimize the diagnosis in prodromal stage of the disease and to propose personalized therapeutic solutions to individual patients. New revised AD diagnostic criteria include early alteration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers: decrease of amyloïd peptides (Aß42), and increase in tau and phosphorylated-tau (p-tau) protein concentration. This recognition of CSF biological biomarkers for the diagnosis of AD is a major step towards the “molecular” diagnosis and follow-up of the disease. Many issues are however still subject of debate. This e-book provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art of fluid biomarkers for AD, e.g. which novel biomarkers should be implemented in clinical practice for diagnosis or for monitoring treatment or side effects, which ones are new for AD or related dementias or what is the potential of peripheral blood markers. Moreover, the e-Book provides practical guidelines how to optimally and efficiently develop and validate novel biomarker assays, and to document and control pre-analytical variation.

Significance of antigen and epitope specificity in tuberculosis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194513 Year: Pages: 119 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-451-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Dissection of the specificity of host immune responses following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is essential for designing effective vaccination and diagnostic biomarkers as well as for better understanding of immunopathogenesis of active tuberculosis. The articles in this volume of the Topics in Microbial Immunology review the significance of this area of research from both experimental models and clinical surveys. This includes T cell recognition of MHC permissive epitopes, use of algorithms for genome-based prediction of immunodominant epitopes, evaluation of candidate antigens/epitopes and adjuvants for vaccination and immunodiagnosis. Future research strategies indicate the need for better understanding of the relationship between epitope specificity and the phenotype of responding T cells and search for biomarkers with a capacity to discriminate and predict the change from latent infection to active disease. These research avenues have important potentials for improving the prevention and control of tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis in Adults and Children

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Public Health ISBN: 9783319191317 9783319191324 Year: Pages: 66 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-19132-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: Wellcome Trust - 089276
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-15 10:53:40
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This work contains updated and clinically relevant information about tuberculosis. It is aimed at providing a succinct overview of history and disease epidemiology, clinical presentation and the most recent scientific developments in the field of tuberculosis research, with an emphasis on diagnosis and treatment. It may serve as a practical resource for students, clinicians and researchers who work in the field of infectious diseases.

Molecular Diagnostics in the Detection of Neurodegenerative Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451944 Year: Pages: 90 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-194-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Neurodegeneration is characterized by the progressive loss of neural tissue that result in various neurodegeneration-initiated cerebral failures and complex diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease. All these medical conditions are accompanied by the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is an interface, separating the brain from the circulatory system and protecting the central nervous system from potentially harmful chemicals while regulating transport of essential molecules and maintaining a stable environment. Owing to the inability of the neurons to regenerate on their own after neurodegeneration or severe damage to the neural tissue, neurodegenerative disorders do not have natural cures on their own. Neuroregeneration is a viable way to curb neurodegeneration. One of the current approaches is stem cell-based therapy that has been shown to be potentially helpful for the application of neuronal cell replacement for neuroregeneration. It is vital that the neurodegenerative disorder being detected at an early stage as it can provide a chance for treatment that may be helpful to prevent further progression of the fatal disease. Thus, research has focused on developing effective non-invasive diagnostic methods for early detection of these disorders. Molecular diagnostics can provide a powerful method to detect and diagnose various neurological disorders. Such diagnosis can enhance early detection, provide subsequent medical counsel based on medical pathway, as well as to gain better insight of neurogenesis and hopefully eventual cure of the neurodegenerative diseases. With research reports, reviews, mini-reviews and commentary, this research topic covers a wide range of areas in neurodegeneration research, including diagnosis and prognosis; regulating central nervous system; biomarkers and brain injury induced neurobehavioral outcomes among other timely reports on neurodegeneration.

Perspectives for the Next Generation of Virus Research: Spearheading the Use of Innovative Technologies and Methodologies

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452156 Year: Pages: 191 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-215-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Infectious diseases are associated with approximately 20% of global mortality, with viral diseases causing about one third of these deaths. Besides newly emerging and re-emerging viral infections will continue to pose a threat to human survival globally. In this case scientific advances have greatly been increased to defend against those pathogens. For example, rapid genomic sequencing, proteomics, epigenomics, nanotechnology, and other advanced tools are being applied to detect viruses at the point of care and to track their spread within human populations as well as to understand virus-host interaction and virus induced pathogenesis. From rapid identification of new viruses to prevention with vaccination and treatment with effective therapeutics, biomedical research has continuously provided tools to meet the constant threat of emerging viral pathogens. Despite these advances, each new disease brings unique challenges to scientists every year. So we must stay at the cutting edge of scientific discovery, working energetically to develop new tools to combat the ever-changing threats they pose. Our research topic highlights such advanced and new technology based virus research which definitely bolsters the researcher's ability to tackle emerging, re-emerging and stable viral pathogens. We are credulous that the papers including in the e-books will be beneficial to the experts in the field to understand the molecular, immunological, ecological and clinical aspects of the next generation researches for the prevention and control of infectious diseases caused by viruses.

Acupuncture – Basic Research and Clinical Application

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ISBN: 9783038972341 9783038972358 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-235-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-09 11:13:34
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This book focuses on the investigation, development, and modernization of acupuncture in basic research settings as well as in clinical applications. The book contains 13 chapters reporting the latest evidence-based results of acupuncture research and exploring acupuncture in general. Altogether, 44 authors from all over the world contributed to this book.

Current Strategies for the Biochemical Diagnosis and Monitoring of Mitochondrial Disease

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ISBN: 9783038972402 9783038972419 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-241-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-16 10:00:26
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Mitochondrial disease constitutes a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from a defect in mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) enzyme activity. In view of the dual regulation of the MRC, exercised by both the mitochondrial and nuclear genome, mutations in either mitochondrial or nuclear DNA can result in a MRC deficiency. Whilst a single organ can be affected, MRC disorders often result in a multi-organ system presentation with prominent neurological and myopathic features. The diagnosis of MRC disorders can be complex, and requires a coordinated interplay of a number of disciplines. However, biochemical determination of metabolites in blood, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and/or urine are generally considered to be first-line investigations for the diagnosis of these disorders, although they lack sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, there is a lack of consensus on the overall utility of monitoring other biochemical parameters, which may be of diagnostic value. For example, although oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of mitochondrial disorders, few centers monitor this as part of their diagnostic repertoire. Therefore, the purpose of this Special Issue was to highlight potential biomarkers of mitochondrial disease and to discuss the appropriateness of biochemical markers to monitor disease progression and therapeutic intervention.

MicroRNAs: Novel Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Human Cancers

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ISBN: 9783038972525 9783038972532 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-253-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-16 10:23:45
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a large family of small, approximately 20–22-nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that are involved in gene regulation, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Multiple lines of evidence have indicated that miRNAs play important roles in the maintenance of biological homeostasis and that aberrant expression levels of miRNAs are involved in the onset of many diseases, including cancer. In various types of cancer, miRNAs play important roles in tumor initiation and development. Recently, miRNAs have been demonstrated to also be secreted via small endosome-derived vesicles called exosomes—which are derived from multiple cell types—including immunocytes and cancer cells. Exosomal miRNAs exert important functions in cell-to-cell communication and have been investigated as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers.

Epidemiology (Book chapter)

Book title: Tuberculosis in Adults and Children

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: SpringerBriefs in Public Health ISBN: 9783319191317 9783319191324 Year: Pages: 66 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: Wellcome Trust - 089276
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:46

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This work contains updated and clinically relevant information about tuberculosis. It is aimed at providing a succinct overview of history and disease epidemiology, clinical presentation and the most recent scientific developments in the field of tuberculosis research, with an emphasis on diagnosis and treatment. It may serve as a practical resource for students, clinicians and researchers who work in the field of infectious diseases.

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