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Natural Water Treatment Systems for Safe and Sustainable Water Supply in the Indian Context

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ISBN: 9781780407111 9781780407104 Year: Pages: 342 DOI: 10.2166/9781780408392 Language: English
Publisher: IWA Publishing Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 282911
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-30 11:02:29
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"Natural Water Treatment Systems for Safe and Sustainable Water Supply in the Indian Context is based on the work from the Saph Pani project (Hindi word meaning potable water). The book aims to study and improve natural water treatment systems, such as River Bank Filtration (RBF), Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR), and wetlands in India, building local and European expertise in this field. The project aims to enhance water resources and water supply, particularly in water stressed urban and peri urban areas in different parts of the Indian sub-continent. This project is co-funded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework (FP7) scheme of small or medium scale focused research projects for specific cooperation actions (SICA) dedicated to international cooperation partner countries.&#xD;&#xD;Natural Water Treatment Systems for Safe and Sustainable Water Supply in the Indian Context provides:&#xD;&#xD;an introduction to the concepts of natural water treatment systems (MAR, RBF, wetlands) at national and international level&#xD;knowledge of the basics of MAR, RBF and wetlands, methods and hydrogeological characterisation&#xD;an insight into case studies in India and abroad.&#xD;This book is a useful resource for teaching at Post Graduate level, for research and professional reference."

Tratamiento biológico de aguas residuales

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781780409146 Year: DOI: 10.2166/9781780409146 Language: Spanish;
Publisher: IWA Publishing
Subject: Environmental Technology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-16 11:02:27
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Over the past twenty years, the knowledge and understanding of wastewater treatment has advanced extensively and moved away from empirically based approaches to a fundamentally-based first principles approach embracing chemistry, microbiology, and physical and bioprocess engineering, often involving experimental laboratory work and techniques. Many of these experimental methods and techniques have matured to the degree that they have been accepted as reliable tools in wastewater treatment research and practice. For sector professionals, especially a new generation of young scientists and engineers entering the wastewater treatment profession, the quantity, complexity and diversity of these new developments can be overwhelming, particularly in developing countries where access to advanced level laboratory courses in wastewater treatment is not readily available. In addition, information on innovative experimental methods is scattered across scientific literature and only partially available in the form of textbooks or guidelines. This book seeks to address these deficiencies. It assembles and integrates the innovative experimental methods developed by research groups and practitioners around the world. Experimental Methods in Wastewater Treatment forms part of the internet-based curriculum in wastewater treatment at UNESCO-IHE and, as such, may also be used together with video records of experimental methods performed and narrated by the authors including guidelines on what to do and what not to do. The book is written for undergraduate and postgraduate students, researchers, laboratory staff, plant operators, consultants, and other sector professionals.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae Clinical Manifestations, Microbiology, and Immunology

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453627 Year: Pages: 175 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-362-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) is a major human pathogen that causes both upper and lower respiratory infections, and is one of the leading causes of community acquired pneumonia (CAP), accounting for 11–15% of CAP throughout the world. Additionally it is known to induce an inflammatory process which depends on several mechanisms such as virulence of Mp (lipoproteins, community acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin, oxidative products) and host defenses (cellular immunity and humoral immunity). Although it is a common pathogen, the pathogenesis for Mp infections is not yet fully understood. From the clinical point of view, since the pioneer studies in the 1960s and 1970s on the clinical presentation of Mp associated disease, the diagnostics approaches have changed dramatically leading to a better understanding of the clinical presentation and new issues have emerged - such as antibiotics resistance. The purpose of this Frontiers ebook is to thoroughly review and discuss the clinical presentation in view of the improved diagnostics, microbiological and immunological analysis of Mp infections, with focus on the history of Mp, clinical features of disease, bacterial structure of Mp and mechanism of gliding, clinical and laboratory diagnostics, the role of lipoproteins and Toll-like receptor, CARDS toxin, subtyping of Mp isolates and genome analysis, macrolide resistance and treatment.

Wetlands for the Treatment of Agricultural Drainage Water

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ISBN: 9783038972082 9783038972099 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-209-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-11 10:44:12
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Agricultural drainage, such as runoffs from farmlands and wineries, are contaminated waters. Their management is monitored by environmental protection authorities who set targets of volume or pollutant reductions. Due to large quantities and seasonal variations, the targets are often not met, and effective management remains a problem in many parts of the world.Natural wetlands are known as the ‘kidneys’ of the earth with unique water purification functions that have long been recognized. Imitating the functions of natural wetlands, constructed wetlands are engineered systems purposely built to treat contaminated waters. They may therefore be called the ‘artificial kidneys’ of the earth. Rural areas often only have low-value lands available for constructed wetlands. Where large quantities of drainage are produced, farmlands are often adjacent to degraded natural wetlands that have reduced ecosystem functions. Controlled discharge and treatment in the wetlands can potentially be part of an integrated solution to multiple environmental problems.This book includes some recent studies on the fate of pollutants removed from agricultural drainage in wetlands, modelling of wetland performance, innovative systems, and the use of non-hazardous agricultural waste in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. These studies enhance our understanding of wetland systems, and will help develop wetland technology towards solving the problems associated with agricultural drainage.

Novel Therapeutic Targets and Emerging Treatments for Fibrosis

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453726 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-372-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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For decades we have known that the overgrowth, hardening and scarring of tissues (so-called fibrosis) represents the final common pathway and best histological predictor of disease progression in most organs. Fibrosis is the culmination of both excess extracellular matrix deposition due to ongoing or severe injury, and a failure to regenerate. An inadequate wound repair process ultimately results in organ failure through a loss of function, and is therefore a major cause of morbidity and mortality in disease affecting both multiple and individual organs.Whilst the pathology of fibrosis and its significance are well understood, until recently we have known little about its molecular regulation. Current therapies are often indirect and non-specific, and only slow progression by a matter of months. The recent identification of novel therapeutic targets, and the development of new treatment strategies based on them, offers the exciting prospect of more efficacious therapies to treat this debilitating disorder.This Research Topic therefore compromises several up-to-date mini-reviews on currently known and emerging therapeutic targets for fibrosis including: the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-family; epigenetic factors; Angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptors; mineralocorticoid receptors; adenosine receptors; caveolins; and the sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate and notch signaling pathways. In each case, mechanistic insights into how each of these factors contribute to regulating fibrosis progression are described, along with how they can be targeted (by existing drugs, small molecules or other mimetics) to prevent and/or reverse fibrosis and its contribution to tissue dysfunction and failure. Two additional reviews will discuss various anti-fibrotic therapies that have demonstrated efficacy at the experimental level, but are not yet clinically approved; and the therapeutic potential vs limitations of stem cell-based therapies for reducing fibrosis while facilitating tissue repair. Finally, this Research Topic concludes with a clinical perspective of various anti-fibrotic therapies for cardiovascular disease (CVD), outlining limitations of currently used therapies, the pipeline of anti-fibrotics for CVD and why so many anti-fibrotic drugs have failed at the clinical level.

Adverse Effects of Cancer Chemotherapy: Anything New to Improve Tolerance and Reduce Sequelae?

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454822 Year: Pages: 245 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-482-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics --- Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Advances in anti-cancer chemotherapy over recent years have led to improved efficacy in curing or controlling many cancers. Some chemotherapy-related side-effects are well recognized and include: nausea, vomiting, bone marrow suppression, peripheral neuropathy, cardiac and skeletal muscle dysfunction and renal impairment. However, it is becoming clearer that some chemotherapy-related adverse effects may persist even in long term cancer survivors. Problems such as cognitive, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal dysfunction, and neuropathy may lead to substantial long term morbidity. Despite improvements in treatments to counteract acute chemotherapy-induced adverse effects, they are often incompletely effective. Furthermore, counter-measures for some acute side-effects and many potential longer term sequelae of anti-cancer chemotherapy have not been developed. Thus, new insights into prevalence and mechanisms of cancer chemotherapy-related side effects are needed and new approaches to improving tolerance and reduce sequelae of cancer chemotherapy are urgently needed.The present Research Topic focuses on adverse effects and sequelae of chemotherapy and strategies to counteract them.

Problem Gambling: Summarizing Research Findings and Defining New Horizons

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456130 Year: Pages: 217 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-613-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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In 2003, Rachel A. Volberg wrote: “Why is it that gambling is not even on the radar when we consider the array of risks that adolescents must confront as they move towards adulthood?” Nowadays, after thirteen years, although much more is known about this particular form of risk behavior, there is still a general tendency, at least among laypersons, to not perceive gambling as a potential danger for youth and other population segments (e.g., individuals with migration background, seniors, sports professionals). However, the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, American Psychological Association, 2013) included Gambling Disorder as the only condition in the Section Non-Substance-Related Disorders. Moreover, it is specified that the disorder can indeed occur in adolescence or young adulthood. Despite this fact, theoretical and applied research on problem gambling with regard to adolescence and other risk groups is still in its infancy.For this reason, it seems to be important to organize a Research Topic on gambling in Frontiers in Psychology in order to i) highlight the necessity of considering gambling as a potential harmful activity; ii) summarize the state-of-art of international research on different aspects of the topic; and iii) offer important novel findings relevant for advancing knowledge in the field of gambling. Different types of research articles will be provided including original articles, systematic/scoping reviews, meta-analyses, case reports, and commentaries. These contributions will be focused on the following most important areas in gambling research: Measurement (Which are the most widely used instruments to assess gambling-related problems as well as proximate constructs and what are their psychometric properties? Are there new instruments to detect adolescent problem gamblers?), Protective and risk factors (What do we know about ecological and individual influences on gambling behavior? Which factors affect problem gambling most and in which way?), Prevention (Which are the most promising prevention programs implemented until now? Which are necessary ingredients for effective prevention?), Treatment (When individuals seek help for their gambling-related problems, which are the clinical treatments that are offered? Do we have evidence for treatment effectiveness for different subgroups?).To try to fulfill this goal in the most comprehensive way, researchers from different countries and with specific competencies and interests will be contacted and encouraged to submit a contribution. Through the integration of international and multidisciplinary contributions, i) new challenges in the field of gambling will be identified (e.g., definition of specific at-risk groups, specification of effective interventions in terms of best practices) and ii) new research routes (e.g., the use of behavioral data) will be outlined in order to build a comprehensive understanding of problem gambling. The overall aim is to summarize the state of art, to propose original novel findings, and to outline new directions in gambling research.

Pediatric Venous Thromboembolism

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456390 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-639-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs less often in children than adults and therefore remains underrecognized despite increasing in incidence. Due to the risk of mortality, short- and long-term morbidity, and increased healthcare costs associated with pediatric VTE, this entity merits better understanding and consideration. With this Research Topic, we aim to highlight some special considerations of pediatric VTE, namely risk factors and epidemiology, rare types of pediatric thrombosis and considerations unique to specific clinical patient subgroups, approaches to management and treatment, and prevention

Recreational Water Illnesses

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ISBN: 9783038975786 / 9783038975793 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-579-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-05 10:46:25
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The safety of recreational waters is affected by numerous variables such as the microbiological and chemical quality of water, the number and health conditions of the users, and the correct functioning of all technological installations used for water treatment. By evaluating the various health risks related to exposure to swimming pools, spas, and surface waters, this Special Issue seeks to address the proper management of waters used for recreational purposes, both in natural and built environments.This Issue contains 12 scientific papers. The first four, three of which are literature reviews, illustrate the epidemiological picture of infections related to recreational waters, by describing cases and outbreaks caused by both traditional and emerging microorganisms. The following four papers concern the microbiological monitoring of swimming pools, gardens, estuarine areas, and therapeutic spas. Two of these also analyse the distribution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the associated transmission risks. The relationship between microbial indicators and pathogens in recreational water is analysed by the following two papers, one of which is an experimental study on the survival of Salmonella and Escherichia coli in estuarine bank sediments and the other of which is an exhaustive literature review. The last two papers are focused on the development of risk control approaches, including the validation of questionnaire methods to quantify recreational water ingestion and the application of traditional and innovative technologies in water treatment.

Penicilina em Portugal (anos 40-50 do século XX): receção, importação e primeiros tratamentos

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Book Series: Ciências e Culturas ISBN: 9789892612232 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14195/978-989-26-1224-9 Language: Portuguese
Publisher: Coimbra University Press
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-23 16:21:06
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In September 1944, Portugal began to import a regular supply of penicillin from the US. The Portuguese Red Cross scrupulously controlled the supply distribution of the antibiotic. In 1945, as world production increased, penicillin began to be distributed through regular channels. The analysis of archive material concerning the reception and distribution of penicillin enabled the author to ascertain how they took place and present case study regarding the first treatments with the antibiotic in Portugal, in Coimbra University Hospitals.

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