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Beyrouth et ses urbanistes

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ISBN: 9782351591628 9782351593455 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Presses de l’Ifpo
Added to DOAB on : 2014-02-27 16:19:24
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Cet ouvrage présente l’histoire de l’urbanisme de Beyrouth entre la période de l’indépendance et le début de la guerre civile libanaise. Il met l’accent sur l’ambitieuse présidence réformiste de Fouad Chéhab, moment fondateur de la construction de l’État au Liban, souvent invoquée, admirée, regrettée, parfois aussi décriée pour ses échecs et ses ambitions déçues, notamment dans le domaine social et urbanistique. Cette période mérite d’être analysée pour elle-même plutôt que comme un âge d’or,...

Atlas du Liban

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ISBN: 9782351590539 9782351592632 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Presses de l’Ifpo
Added to DOAB on : 2014-02-27 16:19:24
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Offrir une vision nouvelle du territoire libanais et mettre en évidence ses transformations depuis une trentaine d’années : tel est le projet de cet atlas, produit d’une collaboration franco-libanaise. L’ouvrage repose sur une large collecte d’informations spatialisées à une échelle fine ; sa cartographie riche et inédite permet d’appréhender les dynamiques complexes à l’œuvre dans un pays qui, souvent, semble défier la compréhension. C’est donc une lecture originale du territoire libanais qu...

Atlas du Liban : Les nouveaux défis

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9782351595442 DOI: 10.4000/books.ifpo.10709 Language: French
Publisher: Presses de l’Ifpo
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:32
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Après une quinzaine d’années de reconstruction dans un climat de paix relative, de 1990 à 2004, le Liban a connu depuis 2005 une succession d’épisodes politiques violents mêlant de manière complexe enjeux internes et tensions régionales. Le déclenchement de la crise syrienne et ses retombées politiques, économiques et démographiques sur le Liban accentue cet état de fait. Cet ouvrage met en lumière ces nouveaux défis et complète en intégrant des volets différents l’analyse des transformations libanaises déjà entreprises dans l’Atlas du Liban. Territoires et société publié en 2007 par la même équipe. Outre la crise internationale et les mouvements de population, il prend en compte les dimensions socio-économiques à l’intérieur du Liban, les problématiques environnementales liées à l’urbanisation incontrôlée et aux risques, ainsi que la gestion territoriale et les conflits locaux qu’elle suscite. Cet atlas est le fruit d’une collaboration entre des chercheurs et universitaires français et libanais. Il utilise une approche géographique, plaçant au premier plan de l’analyse la spatialisation des faits sociaux et naturels. Les sources publiques sont limitées, notamment du point de vue de la finesse géographique, parfois peu fiables et difficiles d’accès. C’est particulièrement vrai pour les données sur la population libanaise, moins bien connue que la population réfugiée. Les données internationales permettent de situer le Liban par rapport à ses voisins. Des données thématiques, issues des ministères, offrent néanmoins une vision détaillée pour certains domaines. L’analyse d’images aériennes et de satellites fournit des données essentielles sur l’urbanisation et l’environnement. Des enquêtes de terrain localisées et thématiques complètent la panoplie des informations utilisées. L’ouvrage comprend six chapitres. Le premier porte sur la géopolitique régionale, les violences politiques internes et leurs effets locaux, à savoir l’installation des réfugiés syriens et la réémergence au grand jour des milices et groupes armés en conflit entre eux et avec l’armée libanaise. Le Liban apparaît de nouveau comme un territoire fragmenté entre de multiples allégeances. Le deuxième chapitre montre la fragilité du modèle économique libanais. Sa dépendance aux investissements extérieurs et aux remises de la diaspora, les blocages de l’industrie et de l’agriculture aggravent les déséquilibres sociaux. Le troisième chapitre est un bilan de l’urbanisation du pays, qui s’est accrue en superficie de 80% en vingt ans, au détriment des espaces naturels et de l’agriculture. Le littoral, objet d’intenses convoitises, est largement artificialisé et dégradé. De multiples signes de mutations et de dégradation de l’environnement sont observables sur le territoire libanais et sont l’objet du quatrième chapitre. Certains semblent annonciateurs du changement climatique global et de ses effets locaux. En outre, il existe un lien direct entre l’urbanisation massive et de nombreux risques mesurés et cartographiés de plus en plus clairement. Le chapitre cinq se concentre sur les dysfonctionnements de quelques services publics en lien avec l’exploitation des ressources naturelles : l’approvisionnement en eau, en énergie, tous deux marqués par la pénurie, et la gestion des déchets solides, qui traverse une crise profonde. Le sixième chapitre étudie les mutations dans la gestion du territoire libanais, marqué par le retrait voire la marginalisation de l’État et l’affirmation d’autres acteurs agissant sur le territoire, notamment les municipalités, les pouvoirs locaux mais aussi des associations de la société civile.

Atlas of Lebanon : New Challenges

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9782351595497 DOI: 10.4000/books.ifpo.13178 Language: English
Publisher: Presses de l’Ifpo
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:32
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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After fifteen years of reconstruction in a relatively peaceful environment spanning the years 1990 to 2004, Lebanon has experienced successive violent political events resulting from complex entangled internal and external struggles. The Syrian crisis and its political, economic and demographic consequences on Lebanon have increased these tensions. This atlas sheds light on these new challenges and adds new data that complete the analyses already published in the Atlas du Liban. Territoires et société (Atlas of Lebanon. Territories and Society) released in 2007 by the same research team. Some of its components are included in this edition. Beyond the international regional crisis and the population movements, it takes into account Lebanon’s socio-economic dimensions, the environmental issues linked to uncontrolled urbanization and to natural risks, as well as conflicts due to local territorial management. This atlas is the result of a collaborative endeavor between French and Lebanese researchers. It uses a geographical approach that puts in the foreground a spatial analysis of social and natural phenomena. Public sources are scarce in Lebanon, especially at the local scale. They are sometimes less reliable and difficult to access. It is particularly the case for the Lebanese census data, conversely data are abundantly available on the refugees population, which is less known than the population of refugees. International data help compare Lebanon to its neighbors. Thematic data produced by some ministries are helpful to provide a detailed view regarding specific domains. Analyses processed on aerial and satellite images have produced essential data on urbanization and environment. Local thematic fieldwork surveys have provided additional data. The book consists of seven chapters. The first one deals with the territorial state-building seen in the light of regional geopolitics, and emphasizes internal violence and the reemergence of militias and armed groups that fight each other and the state army. Lebanon is once again perceived as a territory divided between multiple allegiances. The second chapter is devoted to the analysis of population dynamics, despite the lack of reliable data whose sources are subject to discussion. It includes analyses of internal population flows, the Lebanese diaspora, and the assessment of Syrian refugees’ influx. The third chapter shows the fragility of the Lebanese economic model. Its dependency on foreign investments and on the remittances of the diaspora, as well as the deadlocks of industry and agriculture, which aggravate social imbalances. The fourth chapter is an assessment of urbanization in the country, which has increased by 80% in surface in twenty years at the expense of natural spaces and agriculture. The shore is highly coveted and widely artificialized and damaged. Multiple signs of environmental degradation are examined in chapter five. They seem to announce the global climate change and its local effects. In addition to that, there is a direct link between massive urbanization and many risks, measured and mapped in an increasingly detailed way. Chapter six tackles the dysfunctional public services that exploit natural resources: water and energy supply, both marked by massive shortages, and the management of solid waste hit by a serious crisis. The seventh and last chapter studies the mutations of the local territorial management, which is marked by the retreat of the state, if not its marginalization, and the rise of other actors, notably municipalities, local powers and also civil society organizations.After fifteen years of reconstruction in a relatively peaceful environment spanning the years 1990 to 2004, Lebanon has experienced successive violent political events resulting from complex entangled internal and external struggles. The Syrian crisis and its political, economic and demographic consequences on Lebanon have increased these tensions. This atlas sheds light on these new challenges and adds new data that complete the analyses already published in the Atlas du Liban. Territoires et société (Atlas of Lebanon. Territories and Society) released in 2007 by the same research team. Some of its components are included in this edition. Beyond the international regional crisis and the population movements, it takes into account Lebanon’s socio-economic dimensions, the environmental issues linked to uncontrolled urbanization and to natural risks, as well as conflicts due to local territorial management. This atlas is the result of a collaborative endeavor between French and Lebanese researchers. It uses a geographical approach that puts in the foreground a spatial analysis of social and natural phenomena. Public sources are scarce in Lebanon, especially at the local scale. They are sometimes less reliable and difficult to access. It is particularly the case for the Lebanese census data, conversely data are abundantly available on the refugees population, which is less known than the population of refugees. International data help compare Lebanon to its neighbors. Thematic data produced by some ministries are helpful to provide a detailed view regarding specific domains. Analyses processed on aerial and satellite images have produced essential data on urbanization and environment. Local thematic fieldwork surveys have provided additional data. The book consists of seven chapters. The first one deals with the territorial state-building seen in the light of regional geopolitics, and emphasizes internal violence and the reemergence of militias and armed groups that fight each other and the state army. Lebanon is once again perceived as a territory divided between multiple allegiances. The second chapter is devoted to the analysis of population dynamics, despite the lack of reliable data whose sources are subject to discussion. It includes analyses of internal population flows, the Lebanese diaspora, and the assessment of Syrian refugees’ influx. The third chapter shows the fragility of the Lebanese economic model. Its dependency on foreign investments and on the remittances of the diaspora, as well as the deadlocks of industry and agriculture, which aggravate social imbalances. The fourth chapter is an assessment of urbanization in the country, which has increased by 80% in surface in twenty years at the expense of natural spaces and agriculture. The shore is highly coveted and widely artificialized and damaged. Multiple signs of environmental degradation are examined in chapter five. They seem to announce the global climate change and its local effects. In addition to that, there is a direct link between massive urbanization and many risks, measured and mapped in an increasingly detailed way. Chapter six tackles the dysfunctional public services that exploit natural resources: water and energy supply, both marked by massive shortages, and the management of solid waste hit by a serious crisis. The seventh and last chapter studies the mutations of the local territorial management, which is marked by the retreat of the state, if not its marginalization, and the rise of other actors, notably municipalities, local powers and also civil society organizations.

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