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NEUROTRAUMA: From Emergency Room to Back to Day-by-Day Life

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457243 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-724-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a nondegenerative, noncongenital insult to the brain from an external mechanical force, possibly leading to permanent or temporary impairment of cognitive, physical, and psychosocial functions, with an associated diminished or altered state of consciousness. The definition of TBI has not been consistent and tends to vary according to specialties and circumstances. The term brain injury is often used synonymously with head injury, which may not be associated with neurological deficits. The definition has also been problematic due to variations in inclusion criteria. Both American and Brazilian data indicate that more than 700,000 people suffer TBI annually, with 20% afflicted with moderate or severe TBI. According to this data, 80% of people who suffered mild TBI can return to work, whist only 20% of moderate, and 10% of victims of severe TBI can return to their daily routine. Cognitive rehabilitation, a clinical area encompassing interdisciplinary action aimed at recovery as well as compensation of cognitive functions, altered as a result of cerebral injury, is extremely important for these individuals. The aim of a cognitive and motor rehabilitation program is to recover an individual's ability to process, interpret and respond appropriately to environmental inputs, as well as to create strategies and procedures to compensate for lost functions that are necessary in familial, social, educational and occupational relationships. In general, the cognitive rehabilitation programs tend to focus on specific cognitive domains, such as memory, motor, language and executive functions. By contrast, the focus of compensatory training procedures is generally on making environmental adaptations and changes to provide grater autonomy for patients. Successful cognitive rehabilitation programs are those whose aim is both recovery and compensation based on an integrated and interdisciplinary approach. The purpose of this Research Topic is to review the basic concepts related to TBI, including mechanisms of injury, severity levels of TBI, the most common findings in mild, moderate and severe TBI survivors, and the most cognitive and motor impairments following TBI, and also to discuss the strategies used to handle patients post-TBI. Within this context, the importance of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation for TBI is underlined.

The frontiers of clinical research on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in Neuropsychiatry

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192878 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-287-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation intervention that induces changes in cortical activity and excitability according to the parameters of stimulation. TDCS effects have been reported since the 1800s with the development of the galvanic cell, although more systematic research has been conducted only from 1950-1970 and then from 1998 onwards. At the present time, most tDCS studies have been conducted in healthy volunteers, proving the properties of tDCS as a technique that induces long-lasting, polarity-dependent changes on specific brain areas. In addition, some studies have applied tDCS in selected neuropsychiatric samples, as to investigate its therapeutic effects, obtaining mixed albeit mostly positive results. Using tDCS in clinical practice could bring enormous gains for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric disorders, as tDCS is a portable, non-expensive and straightforward therapy, being therefore a putative candidate as an add-on or substitutive therapy for pharmacological treatments. However, there is still a gap between tDCS basic and clinical research, as it is still unknown whether and how the potent neuromodulatory effects observed after one tDCS session can be carried over for several weeks; therefore proving that tDCS is also a reliable clinical tool. In addition, another gap is observed in tDCS translational research, as results obtained from experimental animal models might not be fully generalizable to neuropsychiatric disorders in humans. Thus, advancing basic and experimental tDCS research as well as tailoring the optimal parameters of stimulation represents the frontiers of tDCS use in neuropsychiatry. In this special edition, our aim is to gather studies that contribute to the proposal of using tDCS for the treatment and investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders. Desired studies include (but are not limited to) the following topics: (1) clinical trials using tDCS as a treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders. (2) original studies investigating optimal parameters for daily tDCS stimulation. (3) safety and tolerability of tDCS, including reports of unexpected and serious adverse effects. (4) comprehensive reviews of putative mechanisms of action of tDCS for neuropsychiatric disorders. (5) translational research, testing different protocols of stimulation in experimental animals. (6) modeling tDCS studies, including studies testing different tDCS devices and montages. (7) studies of cost-efficacy analysis. (8) development of appropriate study designs for tDCS. (9) development of novel employments of tDCS, such as portable, safe devices that allow domestic utilization. (10) development of more precise and focal tDCS devices. To conclude, our ultimate aim is to host studies that contribute to bridge findings from basic and experimental tDCS research with clinical practice, therefore accelerating tDCS use as a novel arsenal for treating neuropsychiatric disorders.

The Role of Primary Motor Cortex as a Marker for and Modulator of Pain Control and Emotional-Affective Processing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452613 Year: Pages: 169 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-261-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The sensory and motor cortical homunculi proposed by Walter Penfield were a major landmark for the anatomical mapping of the brain. More than 60 years after, the development of new tools to investigate brain function non-invasively has increased our knowledge about the structure and functions of the primary motor Cortex (M1) beyond motor control in both humans and animals. This book highlights the role of the motor cortex that goes way beyond motor functioning. We were interested in both theoretical and empirical contributions related to electrophysiological, pharmacological, neuroimaging, and neuromodulatory studies exploring the role of M1 on non-motor functions, such as pain, abnormal neuroplasticity that may lead to chronic pain conditions; or the relationship between M1 and mental imagery or emotion. This book is comprised of 15 articles published in this edited volume as a research topic collection in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience titled “The Role of Primary Motor Cortex as a Marker and Modulator of Pain Control and Emotional-Affective Processing.”

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