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Trends in Neuroendocrinology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450725 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-072-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General) --- Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Neuroendocrinology is the discipline that investigates the interplay between the nervous and endocrine systems i.e. the control of endocrine glands by the central and peripheral nervous systems, the action of hormones on nerve cells and the production of hormones by the nervous system. The present Research Topic is a compilation of contributions stemming from the 8th International Congress of Neuroendocrinology (ICN2014) held in Sydney, Australia, that illustrates various facets of current neuroendocrine research.

Trends in Comparative Endocrinology and Neurobiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453993 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-399-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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The comparative approach takes advantage of the biological diversity to select the most appropriate model organism to tackle a scientific question. Comparisons between the endocrine and nervous systems accross species have yielded major breakthroughs in endocrinology and neurobiology. For instance: a number of mammalian peptide hormones and neuropeptides have been originally identified in fish or amphibians; studies conducted in a sea slug founded the cellular and molecular basis of learning and memory; observations of neurogenesis in the forebrain of songbirds led to the discovery of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. These examples illustrate the remarkable contribution of the comparative approach for the advancement of neuroendocrinological concepts.The present e-book is a unique collection of research articles and reviews that provide a representative overview of the latest developments in comparative endocrinology and neurobiology.

Neuropeptide GPCRs in Neuroendocrinology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192670 Year: Pages: 825 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-267-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General) --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The human genome encompasses ~ 860 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) including 374 non-chemosensory GPCRs. Half of these latter GPCRs recognize (neuro)peptides as natural ligands. GPCRs thus play a pivotal role in neuroendocrine communication. In particular, GPCRs are involved in the neuroendocrine control of feeding behavior, reproduction, growth, hydromineral homeostasis and stress response. GPCRs are also major drug targets and hence possess a strong potential for the development of innovative pharmaceuticals. The aim of this Research Topic was to assemble a series of review articles and original research papers on neuropeptide GPCRs and their ligands that would illustrate the different facets of the studies currently conducted in this domain.

A comparative survey of the RF-amide peptide superfamily

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197309 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-729-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General) --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The discovery, twelve years ago, that the RF-amide peptide kisspeptin, acting via GPR54, is essential for the onset of puberty and reproduction, has been a major breakthrough in reproductive physiology. It has also put in front of the spotlights RF-amide peptides and allowed to revive research on this superfamily. The first member of this family to be characterized, in 1977, was the cardioexcitatory peptide, FMRFamide, isolated from the ganglia of the clam Macrocallista nimbosa. Since then, a large number of these peptides, designated after their C-terminal arginine (R) and amidated phenylalaline (F) residues, have been identified in representative species of all major phyla. By means of phylogenetic analyses, the superfamily of RFamide peptides has been divided into five families in vertebrates: kisspeptin, QFRP (including 26RFa), LPXRFa (including GnIH and RFRP), PQRFa (including NPFF) and PrRP. Recent data reveal that SIFamide-type neuropeptides in protostomian invertebrates and SALMFamide-type neuropeptides in deuterostomian invertebrates share a common evolutionary origin with vertebrate LPXRFa and PQRFa. Interestingly, in invertebrates as in vertebrates, multiple genes, as well as multiple mature peptides, are often present in a single species, questioning the need for such diversity in term of function. Comparative studies on non-mammalian vertebrates and invertebrates allow major advances in the knowledge of the evolutionary history of the RF-amide peptide superfamily. Such phylogenetical studies also contribute to improve classification and nomenclature of both peptides and receptors. RF-amide peptides from different families have major evolutionary conserved roles in the control of reproduction, but also of food intake, metabolism, energy expenditure, cardiovascular function, nociception and stress. They are also involved in the integration of environmental signals, notably the photoperiod, to regulate reproduction. For instance, in most vertebrate species and especially in seasonal mammals, kisspeptin and GnIH/RFRP have complementary but opposite effects in the control of reproductive function. In addition, recent data show cross-activities between the members of the RF-amide peptide superfamily and their receptors. For example, PrRP, kisspeptin and 26RFa are able to modulate nociception via NPFF receptors. Comparative studies have the potential to reveal novel regulatory mechanisms that could give a better comprehension of physiological functions and lead to new therapeutic treatments for related human pathologies. Thus, kisspeptin antagonists have been developed as novel tools for treatment of hormone-dependent disorders of reproduction such as precocious puberty and endometriosis or kisspeptin agonists for treatment of infertility, in humans. Studies on lower vertebrate models can also contribute to the discovery of new roles of these peptides, as seen recently with kisspeptin being involved in the early development of the medaka. This research topic will aim at gathering major advances achieved through comparative studies in (mammalian and non-mammalian) vertebrates and invertebrates, in the knowledge of RF-amide peptides in term of evolutionary history and physiological roles.

Keywords

RF-amide peptides --- GPCRs --- Kisspeptin --- GnIH --- PrRP --- NPFF --- QRFP --- evolution

Trends in Regulatory Peptides

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455379 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-537-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Regulatory peptides represent the most diverse and versatile family of messenger molecules. They are produced by all living organisms from bacteria to mammals. They are involved in a wide variety of biological functions. Biologically active peptides and their receptors thus constitute an unlimited source of inspiration for the development of innovative drugs and cosmetics.The present eBook is a unique collection of research articles and reviews that provide a representative examplification of the latest progress in regulatory peptide research.

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