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Why Have Cortical Layers? What Is the Function of Layering? Do Neurons in Cortex Integrate Information Across Different Layers?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456604 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-660-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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This research topic was suggested by Robert Sachdev to bring together a series of articles dealing with the laminar organization of the neocortex. By convention, there are six cortical layers but this number may vary throughout the cerebral cortex of a given species or between species: many regions lack one or more layers, whereas in other regions there are more than six layers.The laminar location of cortical neurons —their cell bodies— is determined during development. However, neurons are more than their cell bodies; they also have dendrites that may span within a given layer (intralaminar neurons) or across a variety of layers (translaminar neurons). For example, layer V pyramidal neurons have dendrites that span the entire cortical depth, whereas layer III pyramidal neurons have dendrites that span across layers I to IV. Some GABAergic interneurons have dendrites located within a cortical layer (e.g., neurogliaform cells), whereas the dendrites of other interneurons span several layers (e.g., bitufted cells).For neurons having dendrites that cross laminar boundaries, one might ask, why segregate their cell bodies so carefully into lamina? Among many other obvious questions: What is the evidence for or against integration of information across laminae for neurons whose dendrites span several layers?A traditional view is that activity flows through cortical layers in a feed-forward manner, going from layer IV, to layers II and III and onwards. Another view is that cortical layers can have distinct inputs that activate them, triggering spikes. Can processing sequences be state dependent?Furthermore, different cortical layers have distinct transcriptomic profiles, neurochemical attributes, connectivity patterns, number and types of synapses and many other structural attributes. Thus, based on anatomy, or physiology or imaging: What is the function of each cortical layer? What do the different layers do?

Neuroanatomy for the XXIst Century

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199167 Year: Pages: 199 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-916-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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An explosion of new techniques with vastly improved visualization and sensitivity is leading a veritable revolution in modern neuroanatomy. Basic questions related to cell types, input localization, and connectivity are being re-visited and tackled with significantly more accurate and higher resolution experimental approaches. A major goal of this e-Book is thus to highlight in one place the impressive range of available techniques, even as these are fast becoming routine. This is not meant as a technical review, however, but rather will project the technical explosion as indicative of a field now in a vibrant state of renewal. Thus, contributions will be mainly research articles using the newer techniques. A second goal is to showcase what has become the conspicuous interdisciplinary reach of the field: neuroanatomical standards and the close association of structure-function and underlying circuitry mechanisms are increasingly relevant to investigations in development, physiology, and disease. Another feature of this Research Topic is that it includes a breadth of cross-species contributions from investigators working with rodent, nonhuman primate, and human brains. This is important since most of our current knowledge of brain structure has been obtained from experimental animals. However, recent technical advances, coupled with researcher willingness to use the human tissue available, will undoubtedly lead to major advances in the near future regarding human brain mapping and connectomes. Thus, of particular interest will be the methods that can help to define general wiring principles in the brain, both structural and functional. Overall, the state of the field is: exciting.

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