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Language and Cognition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196272 Year: Pages: 125 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-627-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Interaction between language and cognition remains an unsolved scientific problem. What are the differences in neural mechanisms of language and cognition? Why do children acquire language by the age of six, while taking a lifetime to acquire cognition? What is the role of language and cognition in thinking? Is abstract cognition possible without language? Is language just a communication device, or is it fundamental in developing thoughts? Why are there no animals with human thinking but without human language? Combinations even among 100 words and 100 objects (multiple words can represent multiple objects) exceed the number of all the particles in the Universe, and it seems that no amount of experience would suffice to learn these associations. How does human brain overcome this difficulty?

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in functional research of prefrontal cortex

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199440 Year: Pages: 193 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-944-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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This e-book includes the latest outcomes produced by a broad range of fNIRS research with activation of prefrontal cortex, from methodological one to clinical one, providing a forum for scientists planning functional studies of prefrontal brain activation. Reading this book, one will find the possibility that fNIRS could replace fMRI in the near future, and realize that even our aesthetic feeling is measurable. This will serve as a reference repository of knowledge from these fields as well as a conduit of information from leading researchers. In addition it offers an extensive cross-referencing system that will facilitate search and retrieval of information about NIRS measurements in activation studies. Researchers interested in fNIRS would benefit from an overview about its potential utilities for future research directions.

Advances in the Prevention and Treatment of Inflammation-Associated Preterm Birth

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199686 Year: Pages: 101 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-968-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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After decades of intensive research and over 10,000 publications, preterm birth remains a major global obstetric healthcare problem. Each year, early birth is responsible for the deaths of more than one million infants worldwide and is a major cause of life-long disability. Preterm birth places an enormous financial burden on our healthcare systems, resulting in long-term adverse health outcomes and lost productivity for many people. Preterm birth is a syndrome, associated with several different aetiologies; hence, potential treatment strategies need to be matched to pathophysiology in order to be effective. There is now unequivocal evidence that inflammation is causally involved in a majority of spontaneous preterm deliveries. However, the triggers of inflammation, and the strategies by which it can be safely and effectively prevented and treated, remain the subject of ongoing investigation and debate. While intraamniotic infection is an important cause of inflammation-associated preterm birth, particularly in very preterm deliveries, ‘sterile’ inflammation is actually a more common finding associated with preterm birth. It is likely that the nature, localisation, timing and extent of the inflammatory insult all determine the obstetric outcome and degree of risk to the fetus. These factors will also influence the success of approaches that might be employed to achieve better pregnancy outcomes. Despite our increased understanding of the causes and significance of intrauterine inflammation, we have yet to translate this knowledge into effective therapeutic strategies for preventing prematurity and mitigating its consequences for the neonate. In this Research Topic we review recent progress in treating and preventing inflammation-associated preterm birth, approaching the topic from both the causal and therapeutic perspectives. With global attention increasingly focused on the need to translate knowledge discovery into clinical translation, we hope this EBook will provide a stimulating and timely discussion that will focus research and lead to improved healthcare outcomes for women and children.

Representation in the Brain

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455966 Year: Pages: 147 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-596-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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This eBook contains ten articles on the topic of representation of abstract concepts, both simple and complex, at the neural level in the brain. Seven of the articles directly address the main competing theories of mental representation – localist and distributed. Four of these articles argue – either on a theoretical basis or with neurophysiological evidence – that abstract concepts, simple or complex, exist (have to exist) at either the single cell level or in an exclusive neural cell assembly. There are three other papers that argue for sparse distributed representation (population coding) of abstract concepts. There are two other papers that discuss neural implementation of symbolic models. The remaining paper deals with learning of motor skills from imagery versus actual execution. A summary of these papers is provided in the Editorial.

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