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New Boundaries Between Aging, Cognition, and Emotions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456659 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-665-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Abstract

Numerous studies have reported age-related differences for emotional information. For example, when, compared to younger adults, older adults reveal a relative preference in attention and memory for positive over negative information. One explanation places emphasis on an emotion processing preference in older adults that reflects their socioemotional self-relevant goals.Based on evidence from behavioral and neuroscientific research, researchers have realized that it is necessary to propose a new conceptual framework to describe the relationship between cognition and emotion.Given the growing body of research focused on the interaction between emotions and cognition, our purpose is to provide a picture of the state of the art of the interaction between aging, cognition and emotions.

High-Level Adaptation and Aftereffects

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451470 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-147-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Aftereffects generally occur after a prolonged exposure (adaptation) to a first stimulus possessing one given property followed by presentation of a stimulus bearing a neutral value of that property. The aftereffect consists in a change in appearance of the neutral stimulus following the adapter, compared to the appearance of the neutral stimulus when it is perceived without any previous exposure to the adapter. The transient phenomena of perceptual aftereffects are believed to depend on the activation of neuron populations that respond selectively to a given property of the stimuli. Studying how adaptation occurs (which stimulus properties are sensitive to it, which timings are necessary, whether individual differences modulate its occurrence) has thus become an indirect way to probe the plasticity of sensory functions in the nervous system, recently extending to more cognitive and representational aspects of neural coding. In the last two decades, indeed, it has been demonstrated that aftereffects occur not only for low-level properties of stimuli (such as motion, color, or orientation) but also for high-level properties. Many studies have proven that high-level proprieties of the stimuli, e.g. gender, identity, ethnicity, or age of a face or a voice, are sensitive to this phenomenon. It has been shown, for example, that the prolonged exposure to a female or male face produces a gender misperception in the opposite direction when an androgynous face is shown after the adapter. Furthermore, recent studies have also shown that aftereffects are not strictly contingent upon the physical features that make up stimuli, but they seem to run across the high-level proprieties subjects are adapted to. These evidences are supported by cross-category adaptation studies, which underlie how aftereffects occur even across stimuli that do not share physical features (e.g. bodies and faces) but that instead, share common higher-level properties, such as gender. Given the growing body of research focused on adaptation and aftereffects in high-level perception at the boundaries with perceptual learning, attention and cognition, the purpose of this topic is to provide a picture of the state of the art relative to the specific phenomena of adaptation in high-level perceptual processing.

Keywords

adaptation --- Aftereffects --- High-level --- faces --- bodies --- emotion --- Perception

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