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Emerging Zoonoses: Eco-Epidemiology, Involved Mechanisms and Public Health Implications

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196180 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-618-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-02 10:49:06
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Abstract

Zoonoses are currently considered as one of the most important threats for public health worldwide. Zoonoses can be defined as any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from vertebrate or invertebrate animals to humans and vice-versa. Approximately 75% of recently emerging infectious diseases affecting humans are diseases of animal origin; approximately 60% of all human pathogens are zoonotic. All types of potential pathogenic agents, including viruses, parasites, bacteria and fungi, can cause these zoonotic infections. From the wide range of potential vectors of zoonoses, insects are probably those of major significance due to their abundance, high plasticity and adaptability to different kinds of pathogens, high degrees of synanthropism in several groups and difficulties to apply effective programs of population control. Although ticks, flies, cockroaches, bugs and fleas are excellent insects capable to transmit viruses, parasites and bacteria, undoubtedly mosquitoes are the most important disease vectors. Mosquito borne diseases like malaria, dengue, equine encephalitis, West Nile, Mayaro or Chikungunya are zoonoses with increasing incidence in last years in tropical and temperate countries. Vertebrates can also transmit serious zoonoses, highlighting the role of some carnivorous animals in rabies dissemination or the spread of rodent borne diseases in several rural and urban areas. Moreover, the significance of other food borne zoonoses such as taeniasis, trichinellosis or toxoplasmosis may not been underestimated. According to WHO, FAO and OIE guidelines an emerging zoonotic disease can be defined as a zoonosis that is newly recognized or newly evolved, or that has occurred previously but shows an increase of incidence or expansion in geographical, host or vector range. There are many factors that can provoke or accelerate the emergence of zoonoses, such as environmental changes, habitat modifications, variations of human and animal demography, pathogens and vectors anomalous mobilization related with human practices and globalization, deterioration of the strategies of vector control or changes in pathogen genetics. To reduce public health risks from zoonoses is absolutely necessary to acquire an integrative perspective that includes the study of the complexity of interactions among humans, animals and environment in order to be able to fight against these issues of primary interest for human health. In any case, although zoonoses represent significant public health threats, many of them still remain as neglected diseases and consequently are not prioritized by some health international organisms.

Zika Virus: What Have We Learnt Since the Start of the Recent Epidemic?

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454808 Year: Pages: 253 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-480-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Internal medicine --- Neurology --- Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The considerable number of viral infectious disease threats that have emerged since the beginning of the 21st century have shown the need to dispose global and coordinated responses to fight properly and efficiently against them. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (2003), avian influenza in humans (2005), A(H1N1) pandemic influenza (2009), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (2012 onward) and Ebola virus disease (2014-2015) are some of the most important examples. The latest emerging and devastating threat was Zika virus, an arbovirus that provoked more than 500,000 suspicious cases in the Americas in 2016 and notable processes of social and medical alarms due to the evidence of a causal link between Zika virus and several congenital injuries, like microcephaly, as well as due to its association with neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults (PAHO, 2017). In the framework of this global response and multistrategic approach, the purpose of this Research Topic is to provide updated information and novel researches about control strategies, encompassing virological, entomological and epidemiological data, in order to reach the triad of protagonists of transmission cycles (virus, mosquitoes and humans).

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