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3 Is It Possible to Prevent Unforeseen Events? (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch3 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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Abstract

"An unforeseen event may be defined as something that happens suddenly
and unexpectedly. Such events are seldom the result of an organisation’s operational
planning, but they can be side-effects of such planning. An unforeseen event may
have either positive or negative consequences. This chapter aims to discuss if it is
possible
to prevent unforeseen events. The major focus is on analysis and prevention
of unforeseen events with negative consequences, such as accidents, catastrophes
and acts of terror. Such events often take place in complex systems, and failures of
appropriate organisational interaction and communication among participants
with complementary competence in such systems may contribute to unforeseen
events. Risk-analysis methods and tools based on energy-barrier models, causal sequence
and process models, as well as information-processing models are presented
and their applicability to the prevention of unforeseen events is discussed. This also
includes the Bow-tie approach, as well as other approaches which take into consideration
organisational factors and social interaction (samhandling). The conclusion
is that unforeseen events can be prevented. However, in the aftermath of the implementation
of safety and security measures, it is not possible to know which events
they prevented, or to obtain knowledge about their efficiency. An additional strategy
for prevention of unforeseen events with negative consequences is proposed."

15 Competence for the Unforeseen (Book chapter)

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 34 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch15 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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Abstract

"This study examines self-assessment of preparedness for unforeseen events
and how it varies between groups and individuals according to roles and functions
within an organization. The study has two objectives. The first is to analyse the relationship
between general self-efficacy, perceived competence in demanding situations and
social support, and based on this, to assess the efficiency of interaction (samhandling)
in organizations and preparedness for the unforeseen. The second aim is to examine
how these factors vary according to professional experience. A survey questionnaire
was completed during winter 2016/2017. All 624 respondents were male or female
employees of the Norwegian Armed Forces, based in different units, with different
levels of competence, and included commissioned and non-commissioned officers,
officer cadets and conscripts. The response rate was 77 percent, and a total of 810
personnel were approached. This study incorporates central concepts of individual
and social resources that could permit the prediction and understanding of resilient
behaviors in complex and demanding situations. Interaction was found to be the
most important predictor of preparedness for the unforeseen. This study also shows
that interaction combined with general self-efficacy and social support can account
for a considerable proportion of the variance in preparedness for the unforeseen. The
results indicate that it is possible to prepare for unforeseen events by implementing
measures that improve social factors in particular."

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