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Role and prevalence of antibiosis and the related resistance genes in the environment

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195213 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-521-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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It becomes increasingly clear that the basis of antibiotic resistance problem among bacterial pathogens is not confined to the borders of clinical microbiology but has broader ecological and evolutionary associations. This Research Topic “Role and prevalence of antibiosis and the related resistance genes in the environment” in Frontiers in Microbiology, section Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy, presents the examples of occurrence and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in the wide range of environments, from the grasslands of the Colombian Andes, to the dairy farms and small animal veterinary hospitals in the United Stated, and to the various environments of Continental Europe and Indochina. Besides, various genetic mechanisms and selection/co-selection factors contributing to the dissemination and maintenance of antibiotic resistance genes are presented. The topic is finalized by the mathematical modeling approach to access the probability of rare horizontal gene transfer events in bacterial populations.

Microbial and Environmental Factors in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451555 Year: Pages: 193 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-155-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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In recent years there has been a substantial increase in the number of diseases with the inflammatory component such as such as allergy, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowl disease (IBD, which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease), chronic sinusitis, and many other conditions. The majority of these diseases are multifactorial, with the contribution of genetic and environmental factors. Among the latter, the role of certain microorganisms and viruses in triggering or sustaining the inflammatory process is most controversial. In rheumatoid arthritis, for example, the following bacteria and viruses have been implicated in triggering the disease: Mycoplasma spp., Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., Bordetella spp., Acinetobacter spp., the parvoviruses, Epstein-Barr virus, and retroviruses. The list of putative microbial triggers of rheumatoid arthritis is still growing, and it becomes essentially impossible to make a causation link between certain infectious agents and the disease. In the light of these disappointing results there are calls for even larger studies with the use of more advanced and large-scale technologies. The primary function of the immune system is the maintenance of body homeostasis and protection against any threats to it via several lines of elaborate and complex immune defense. Given even higher complexity that involves the microbiota and the corresponding host-microbe interaction, the conditions for this equilibrium become even more challenging. In the absence of a defined pathogen, for example, the spectrum of microorganisms involved in triggering inappropriate immune responses may include polymicrobial communities or the cumulative effect of several microbial/viral factors. Under the normal circumstances there is a fine-tuned balance between commensal microbiota and the host’s immune responses. However, when this balance is compromised, for example in IBD, a massive immune response is launched against commensal microbiota resulting in chronic inflammation. Besides the microbial/viral factors, the balance of the immune system can be compromised by other causes. Given, for example, the close and inclusive interaction of the immune, nervous and endocrine systems, the list of these provoking factors can expand even more. For instance, it has been demonstrated that even mild sleep deprivation may increase the production of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. Understanding the complex role of microbial and environmental factors in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, therefore, is the main subject of this topic.

Phage Therapy: Past; Present and Future

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452514 Year: Pages: 392 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-251-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Historically, the first observation of a transmissible lytic agent that is specifically active against a bacterium (Bacillus anthracis) was by a Russian microbiologist Nikolay Gamaleya in 1898. At that time, however, it was too early to make a connection to another discovery made by Dmitri Ivanovsky in 1892 and Martinus Beijerinck in 1898 on a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants. Thus the viral world was discovered in two of the three domains of life, and our current understanding is that viruses represent the most abundant biological entities on the planet. The potential of bacteriophages for infection treatment have been recognized after the discoveries by Frederick Twort and Felix d’Hérelle in 1915 and 1917. Subsequent phage therapy developments, however, have been overshadowed by the remarkable success of antibiotics in infection control and treatment, and phage therapy research and development persisted mostly in the former Soviet Union countries, Russia and Georgia, as well as in France and Poland. The dramatic rise of antibiotic resistance and especially of multi-drug resistance among human and animal bacterial pathogens, however, challenged the position of antibiotics as a single most important pillar for infection control and treatment. Thus there is a renewed interest in phage therapy as a possible additive/alternative therapy, especially for the infections that resist routine antibiotic treatment. The basis for the revival of phage therapy is affected by a number of issues that need to be resolved before it can enter the arena, which is traditionally reserved for antibiotics. Probably the most important is the regulatory issue: How should phage therapy be regulated? Similarly to drugs? Then the co-evolving nature of phage-bacterial host relationship will be a major hurdle for the production of consistent phage formulae. Or should we resort to the phage products such as lysins and the corresponding engineered versions in order to have accurate and consistent delivery doses? We still have very limited knowledge about the pharmacodynamics of phage therapy. More data, obtained in animal models, are necessary to evaluate the phage therapy efficiency compared, for example, to antibiotics. Another aspect is the safety of phage therapy. How do phages interact with the immune system and to what costs, or benefits? What are the risks, in the course of phage therapy, of transduction of undesirable properties such as virulence or antibiotic resistance genes? How frequent is the development of bacterial host resistance during phage therapy? Understanding these and many other aspects of phage therapy, basic and applied, is the main subject of this Topic.

Low-dose antibiotics: current status and outlook for the future

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193554 Year: Pages: 167 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-355-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Antimicrobial therapy is a key factor in our success against pathogens poised to ravage at risk or infected individuals. However, we are currently at a watershed point as we face a growing crisis of antibiotic resistance among diverse pathogens. One area of intense interest is the impact of the application of antibiotics for uses other than the treatment of patients and the association with such utilization with emerging drug resistance. This Research Topic “Low- dose antibiotics: current status and outlook for the future” in Frontiers in Microbiology: Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy details various aspects of the wide ranging effects of antimicrobial therapy from areas such as the regulation of host responses to modulation of bacterial virulence factors to acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes.

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