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22 Learning from Sports (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch22 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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Abstract

"This study shows some generic characteristics from sports that are of relevance to
samhandling structures under risk. The findings are based on a case study of the
concept of “Total Football” and the Rosenborg Football Club (RBK) in Norway.
Football is a dynamic sport with several factors that come into play and where
flexible solutions are demanded. The case is also of relevance for organizations in
handling risk. RBK’s samhandling is based on “Total Football” and flow theory. In
analyzing RBK, we also apply theories of improvisation. RBK created a platform
that gave both direction to choices and a clear playing pattern. This platform further
ensured that tasks could be executed at high speed and high intensity, described as
“flow”. Flow contributed to both speed and precision in the playing pattern. It is
concluded that the following is relevant for other organizations: 1) Forming a deeper
understanding of samhandling and ensuring top management commitment; 2)
Creating, establishing and maintaining samhandling in a manner that suits the organization;
and 3) Minimal structures can be of great importance for organizations
in unforeseen and risky situations."

10 Weltbürger Perspectives and Samhandling (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 10 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch10 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"The chapter starts with a criticism of management and control concepts
that have been rooted in economic or psychological theories and models, although
society’s complexity and the pace of change will demand a broader and deeper foundation
for the development of effective management systems in the future. Other
voices need to be put forward. Immanuel Kant (1795/1991) argued for his idea of the
Weltbürger (“world citizen”), also known as “The Cosmopolitan Ideal”. His fundamental
philosophy is that all humans are welcome, regardless of time and place, and
that all humans are world citizens, regardless of nationality and cultural belonging
(Kant, 1795/1991). All people are co-citizens, independent of nationality and cultural
affiliation, and the Weltbürger is concerned with global problems and solutions.
Another central thinker is Jacques Derrida (1930–2004), a French philosopher and
writer particularly known for the term “Deconstruction”, which is about splitting up
words and phrases to find out what they really mean, in the light of the culture and
underlying attitudes. Human comprehension requires common words and phrases
(language), and a cultural and social context, both of which have formed the basis
for conceptual analysis of the terms “hospitality” and “threshold of tolerance”. The
conclusion is that the concepts of the Weltbürger and “hospitality” have important
values in and of themselves, and are ideas that are universal and timeless, providing
an important compass for samhandling."

28 Basic Structures for a New Theory of Samhandling Under Risk (SUR) (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 22 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch28 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:07
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"This final chapter aggregates experiences and findings from the other
chapters of the book. The book’s overall research question is as follows: What are
the basic structures of the concept of samhandling under risk and how can samhandling
be created when the conditions are unpredictable? A number of SUR (Samhandling
Under Risk) structures are derived based on semantic theory construction,
and these are described in an overall definition and visualized in a model, which
in turn can form the basis of a SUR theory. These are organized under educational,
organizational and operational structures, as three superior competencies needed
to facilitate effective SUR. The essence is that there is a different basis for this type
of assessment than with traditional risk analysis, in order to achieve good samhandling
under risk and unforeseen conditions. This is concerned with what is needed
when little or nothing goes according to plan. It is then necessary to emphasize
on such matters more in depth and addition address other factors to achieve SUR
through samhandling where the conditions are predictable - where completed plans
and clear objectives work. For the learning level, valuation of inaccurate knowledge
and qualities is required to extract information from the disorder. For the
organizational level, it is important to create and/or maintain shared leadership
and at the operative level, improvisation is essential. When working with a SUR
paradigm, one must be able to accept unclear goals, be prepared to lose control
and create room for surprises. Leaders with SUR skills will be required to prepare organizations for this. Training and SUR should be incorporated into strategic
plans, management training and leadership development. An expansion of established
pedagogical models is also needed to achieve this aim. Invisible learning is
one approach. Samhandling does not simply happen in a vacuum, and the chapter
encourages further SUR research in a global perspective, where different languages
and cultures can contribute to enhanced understanding of SUR issues. As a starting
point for such an approach, we explore how the term is expressed in the Japanese
language. A more global approach to SUR structures can contribute to a deeper
understanding of what is needed, to avoid unwanted misunderstandings and crises,
learn from each other and solve complex and unforeseen situations through
samhandling."

6 Apprenticeship Learning in Preparation for Meeting the Unforeseen (Book chapter)

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 34 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch6 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"The chapter analyzes teaching where the goal is to enable students at the
Armed Forces Staff College to master unforeseen events. The students are all participants
in a program for joint operations in which different military branches are placed
together to solve complex tasks. How can the supervisor contribute to increased
samhandling when facing the unforeseen? The goal is for students to be able to cope
with the roles that exist in a normal NATO headquarters and to learn how to use
NATO’s operational planning strategy. The group supervisor becomes a form of
master who greatly influences the approach of students to the training community.
From a sample of one hundred students, five groups consisting of four to five students
of both sexes, with varied defense-force affiliations, backgrounds and experience
were selected to be interviewed. A total of 23 informants participated in the
interviews. In addition, observations were carried out. Apprenticeship Learning as a
method is appropriate to prepare the students better for samhandling in anticipation
of the unforeseen. The way the supervisor manages his or her role has a great deal of
impact on samhandling and learning outcomes. The supervisor’s insight and expertise
in what is needed to make groups work together is decisive. Strengthening and
developing samhandling in exercises is a suitable educational method for military
forces in meeting unforeseen events, provided that it is done properly."

8 The Relevance of Samhandling in Military Doctrines (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 26 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch8 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"Military leaders are faced with high expectations when it comes to handling
unforeseen situations in joint military operations. This chapter aims to present
a nuanced professional and pedagogical discussion of how an increased awareness
of the concept of samhandling in the use of military doctrines may contribute to
the professionalization of military higher education. Different doctrines reflect different
theoretical decisions. They are given relevance in education as a way to illustrate
formal examples of what is preferred and what is rejected. As doctrines are
built on experiences from real-life scenarios, as well as on predictions and strategies
for possible change, they may serve as a way of balancing the branch-specific “hidden
curriculum”, i.e. an established culture with a set of current values, behavior and
thinking that have been developed over time in the organization. The findings in
the current case study indicate that military doctrines are regarded as important in
leadership training at the Norwegian Military Academy, especially when it comes
to understanding and guiding samhandling in unforeseen and risk-oriented situations.
However, at the same time, the terms used to describe samhandling in military
doctrines found relevant in education at the Norwegian Military Academy are numerous,
vague and somewhat overlapping. It seems crucial to raise awareness of the
underlying processes and the relational ambition level that forms the basis of the chosen
term. It is advantageous to reach a collective understanding of the kind of skills
that need to be developed and trained. Another benefit of such analysis is to provide a
basis for clarified learning goals and practical scenario development through exercises
and other teaching plans in leadership education, as well as the evaluation of this,
both in terms of learning outcomes and education as a whole."

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