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Manipulative approaches to human brain dynamics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194797 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-479-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:33
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In this EBook, we highlight how newly emerging techniques for non-invasive manipulation of the human brain, combined with simultaneous recordings of neural activity, contribute to the understanding of brain functions and neural dynamics in humans. A growing body of evidence indicates that the neural dynamics (e.g., oscillations, synchrony) are important in mediating information processing and networking for various functions in the human brain. Most of previous studies on human brain dynamics, however, show correlative relationships between brain functions and patterns of neural dynamics measured by imaging methods such as electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In contrast, manipulative approaches by non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) have been developed and extensively used. These approaches include transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electric stimulation (tES) such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), alternating current stimulation (tACS), and random noise stimulation (tRNS), which can directly manipulate neural dynamics in the intact human brain. Although the neural-correlate approach is a strong tool, we think that manipulative approaches have far greater potential to show causal roles of neural dynamics in human brain functions. There have been technical challenges with using manipulative methods together with imaging methods. However, thanks to recent technical developments, it has become possible to use combined methods such as TMS–EEG coregistration. We can now directly measure and manipulate neural dynamics and analyze functional consequences to show causal roles of neural dynamics in various brain functions. Moreover, these combined methods can probe brain excitability, plasticity and cortical networking associated with information processing in the intact human brain. The contributors to this EBook have succeeded in showcasing cutting-edge studies and demonstrate the huge impact of their approaches on many areas in human neuroscience and clinical applications.

Challenging the Functional Connectivity Disruption in Neurodegenerative Diseases: New Therapeutic Perspectives through Non-Invasive Neuromodulation and Cutting-Edge Technologies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455935 Year: Pages: 143 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-593-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The neurorehabilitation field is increasingly focused on understanding how to efficiently revert the effects that acute (i.e., stroke or traumatic brain injury) or chronic (i.e., neurodegenerative diseases) insults play either on small or large-scale networks, encompassing motor, sensory and cognitive domains. The link between the disrupted neuronal pulse generators and their effectors is being re-shaped through a wide scenario that embraces biorobotics, robot-aided rehabilitation, non-invasive neurostimulation, nanoprosthetics and neuroengineering. For the past decade and at an amazing speed, large investments and efforts allowed enthusiastic and only apparently heterogeneous researchers to borrow theories from neurophysiology, pharmacology, physics and quantum mechanics in order to generate together highly sophisticated tools that restore, resemble or even substitute the basic biological architecture. The idea of actually reverting weakened functions and/or replacing the faulty parts either of the human body or the central and peripheral nervous system is becoming a new reality, opening a fascinating era in this field.In this Research Topic, several researchers showed how the above principles became reality, from theory to the bedside of patients, providing full explanations of the whole mechanistic processes and how they were implemented, up to the final stage.

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