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1 Samhandling Under Risk (SUR) (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch1 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"The main objective of this chapter is to clarify some key and overall theoretical and conceptual frameworks underlying the research project “Samhandling Under Risk” (SUR), as discussed in the various chapters of this anthology. The overall research question is: What are the basic structures of the concept of samhandling under risk and how can samhandling be created when the conditions are unpredictable? This chapter explains in particular the terms “samhandling” (SAM), “the Unforeseen” (UN), “Risk” and “SUR structures”. Furthermore, these concepts are explored more deeply in relation to each other, which also frames the main approach of the anthology. As a basis, a specific understanding of “The Nature of the Unforeseen”, an expanded and customized Bow-tie Model, as well as a clarification of the boundaries enclosing the research field are compared to traditional risk analysis and training in what is already known and in dealing with probable threats. Although the individual studies reported in this anthology also have their own specific angles regarding these concepts and models, they have nevertheless been based on these. The core focus is also on learning in the light of organizational learning and SUR. The boundaries, challenges and the anthology’s focus on learning are also expressed in the more general and overall question: How can we as a society prepare ourselves for the unforeseen, the events and threats at the outer reaches of what we have trained for? A more indepth explanation about the background of this research project is also given in the preface of the anthology."

2 Defining the Term Samhandling (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch2 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"In this chapter we will demonstrate that samhandling has a different qualitative meaning from other similar concepts. The term “samhandling” is used by many organizations, researchers and textbook authors without clarifying the rationale for its use (Torgersen & Steiro, 2009). The word samhandling is built on a distinct cultural foundation. Therefore, we think it is necessary to describe Norwegian culture briefly, to enable the reader to understand the basis of samhandling. The chapter presents a definition of samhandling that was originally presented by Torgersen & Steiro (2009). Samhandling is distinguished from cooperation/teamwork by three core attributes which we can call the identity of samhandling: focus on complementarity, exchange and utilization of the participants’ various skills, experiences, backgrounds and cultures, and coordination of these factors in efforts towards a common goal in a work situation or meeting. Samhandling has a higher relative ambition level than the corresponding processes covered by the expressions “collaboration”, “cooperation” and “coordination”. Increased complexity and relations between stakeholders call for a focus on complementary handling in action, that is, samhandling. The following competencies were identified in order for good samhandling to occur: trust, assurance, well-being, belonging, clarity, time and tolerance."

15 Competence for the Unforeseen (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 34 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch15 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"This study examines self-assessment of preparedness for unforeseen events and how it varies between groups and individuals according to roles and functions within an organization. The study has two objectives. The first is to analyse the relationship between general self-efficacy, perceived competence in demanding situations and social support, and based on this, to assess the efficiency of interaction (samhandling) in organizations and preparedness for the unforeseen. The second aim is to examine how these factors vary according to professional experience. A survey questionnaire was completed during winter 2016/2017. All 624 respondents were male or female employees of the Norwegian Armed Forces, based in different units, with different levels of competence, and included commissioned and non-commissioned officers, officer cadets and conscripts. The response rate was 77 percent, and a total of 810 personnel were approached. This study incorporates central concepts of individual and social resources that could permit the prediction and understanding of resilient behaviors in complex and demanding situations. Interaction was found to be the most important predictor of preparedness for the unforeseen. This study also shows that interaction combined with general self-efficacy and social support can account for a considerable proportion of the variance in preparedness for the unforeseen. The results indicate that it is possible to prepare for unforeseen events by implementing measures that improve social factors in particular."

14 Samhandling Under Risk (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 17 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch14 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
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"This chapter aims to examine how samhandling and concurrent learning work together. “Concurrent learning” is a form of simultaneous learning, where many learning processes related to samhandling take place at the same time. Samhandling and concurrent learning are also functional processes, in the sense that learning also occurs through daily interaction activities or actions. At the same time, concurrent learning and samhandling are interdependent and they are, therefore, in a sense part of the same process (hence concurrent learning). The chapter identifies five factors identified as important to samhandling and concurrent learning. These are: (1) Awareness of basic assumptions regarding people; relations and teamwork are essential; (2) Space, (3) Giving of themselves, (4) Making processes transparent and addressing problems as early as possible, and (5) Reflection as a key to samhandling and concurrent learning. Samhandling and concurrent learning represent a mindset, a way of working and a form of learning, which together help to meet and/ or develop the skills needed to tackle the challenges of flexible organizations."

10 Weltbürger Perspectives and Samhandling (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 10 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch10 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"The chapter starts with a criticism of management and control concepts that have been rooted in economic or psychological theories and models, although society’s complexity and the pace of change will demand a broader and deeper foundation for the development of effective management systems in the future. Other voices need to be put forward. Immanuel Kant (1795/1991) argued for his idea of the Weltbürger (“world citizen”), also known as “The Cosmopolitan Ideal”. His fundamental philosophy is that all humans are welcome, regardless of time and place, and that all humans are world citizens, regardless of nationality and cultural belonging (Kant, 1795/1991). All people are co-citizens, independent of nationality and cultural affiliation, and the Weltbürger is concerned with global problems and solutions. Another central thinker is Jacques Derrida (1930–2004), a French philosopher and writer particularly known for the term “Deconstruction”, which is about splitting up words and phrases to find out what they really mean, in the light of the culture and underlying attitudes. Human comprehension requires common words and phrases (language), and a cultural and social context, both of which have formed the basis for conceptual analysis of the terms “hospitality” and “threshold of tolerance”. The conclusion is that the concepts of the Weltbürger and “hospitality” have important values in and of themselves, and are ideas that are universal and timeless, providing an important compass for samhandling."

28 Basic Structures for a New Theory of Samhandling Under Risk (SUR) (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 22 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch28 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:07
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"This final chapter aggregates experiences and findings from the other chapters of the book. The book’s overall research question is as follows: What are the basic structures of the concept of samhandling under risk and how can samhandling be created when the conditions are unpredictable? A number of SUR (Samhandling Under Risk) structures are derived based on semantic theory construction, and these are described in an overall definition and visualized in a model, which in turn can form the basis of a SUR theory. These are organized under educational, organizational and operational structures, as three superior competencies needed to facilitate effective SUR. The essence is that there is a different basis for this type of assessment than with traditional risk analysis, in order to achieve good samhandling under risk and unforeseen conditions. This is concerned with what is needed when little or nothing goes according to plan. It is then necessary to emphasize on such matters more in depth and addition address other factors to achieve SUR through samhandling where the conditions are predictable - where completed plans and clear objectives work. For the learning level, valuation of inaccurate knowledge and qualities is required to extract information from the disorder. For the organizational level, it is important to create and/or maintain shared leadership and at the operative level, improvisation is essential. When working with a SUR paradigm, one must be able to accept unclear goals, be prepared to lose control and create room for surprises. Leaders with SUR skills will be required to prepare organizations for this. Training and SUR should be incorporated into strategic plans, management training and leadership development. An expansion of established pedagogical models is also needed to achieve this aim. Invisible learning is one approach. Samhandling does not simply happen in a vacuum, and the chapter encourages further SUR research in a global perspective, where different languages and cultures can contribute to enhanced understanding of SUR issues. As a starting point for such an approach, we explore how the term is expressed in the Japanese language. A more global approach to SUR structures can contribute to a deeper understanding of what is needed, to avoid unwanted misunderstandings and crises, learn from each other and solve complex and unforeseen situations through samhandling."

9 Digital Samhandling in Education for the Unforeseen Future (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch9 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"This chapter aims to discuss whether digital interaction (samhandling) in education requires a new pedagogy, which, to a greater extent than before, takes into account risks and unforeseen events. The major focus is on digital samhandling between teachers and students. Future education should prepare students for a world in which samhandling between individuals is predicted to be increasingly digital. At the same time, teachers currently refrain from using digital tools in order to interact pedagogically with students. A “mixed methods” survey of 96 randomly-chosen schoolteachers in primary and secondary schools in Norway shows that the respondents give various reasons for using Learning Management Systems (LMS) to a greater extent for administrative purposes than for pedagogical ones. The main obstacle is that teachers do not know exactly how digital samhandling should be facilitated educationally and what the consequences may be for the students and education in general. The conclusion is that the future is unknown, and the unforeseen is partly learned through teachers’ professional judgment. Therefore, “new” pedagogy need not necessarily consist of more educational models and theories of “what works.” Perhaps the “new” pedagogy should be, to a greater extent, based on samhandling literacy and problem-based learning?"

6 Apprenticeship Learning in Preparation for Meeting the Unforeseen (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 34 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch6 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"The chapter analyzes teaching where the goal is to enable students at the Armed Forces Staff College to master unforeseen events. The students are all participants in a program for joint operations in which different military branches are placed together to solve complex tasks. How can the supervisor contribute to increased samhandling when facing the unforeseen? The goal is for students to be able to cope with the roles that exist in a normal NATO headquarters and to learn how to use NATO’s operational planning strategy. The group supervisor becomes a form of master who greatly influences the approach of students to the training community. From a sample of one hundred students, five groups consisting of four to five students of both sexes, with varied defense-force affiliations, backgrounds and experience were selected to be interviewed. A total of 23 informants participated in the interviews. In addition, observations were carried out. Apprenticeship Learning as a method is appropriate to prepare the students better for samhandling in anticipation of the unforeseen. The way the supervisor manages his or her role has a great deal of impact on samhandling and learning outcomes. The supervisor’s insight and expertise in what is needed to make groups work together is decisive. Strengthening and developing samhandling in exercises is a suitable educational method for military forces in meeting unforeseen events, provided that it is done properly."

8 The Relevance of Samhandling in Military Doctrines (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 26 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch8 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
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"Military leaders are faced with high expectations when it comes to handling unforeseen situations in joint military operations. This chapter aims to present a nuanced professional and pedagogical discussion of how an increased awareness of the concept of samhandling in the use of military doctrines may contribute to the professionalization of military higher education. Different doctrines reflect different theoretical decisions. They are given relevance in education as a way to illustrate formal examples of what is preferred and what is rejected. As doctrines are built on experiences from real-life scenarios, as well as on predictions and strategies for possible change, they may serve as a way of balancing the branch-specific “hidden curriculum”, i.e. an established culture with a set of current values, behavior and thinking that have been developed over time in the organization. The findings in the current case study indicate that military doctrines are regarded as important in leadership training at the Norwegian Military Academy, especially when it comes to understanding and guiding samhandling in unforeseen and risk-oriented situations. However, at the same time, the terms used to describe samhandling in military doctrines found relevant in education at the Norwegian Military Academy are numerous, vague and somewhat overlapping. It seems crucial to raise awareness of the underlying processes and the relational ambition level that forms the basis of the chosen term. It is advantageous to reach a collective understanding of the kind of skills that need to be developed and trained. Another benefit of such analysis is to provide a basis for clarified learning goals and practical scenario development through exercises and other teaching plans in leadership education, as well as the evaluation of this, both in terms of learning outcomes and education as a whole."

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