Search results: Found 9

Listing 1 - 9 of 9
Sort by
1 Samhandling Under Risk (SUR) (Book chapter)

Author:
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch1 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

"The main objective of this chapter is to clarify some key and overall theoretical
and conceptual frameworks underlying the research project “Samhandling
Under Risk” (SUR), as discussed in the various chapters of this anthology. The overall
research question is: What are the basic structures of the concept of samhandling under
risk and how can samhandling be created when the conditions are unpredictable?
This chapter explains in particular the terms “samhandling” (SAM), “the Unforeseen”
(UN), “Risk” and “SUR structures”. Furthermore, these concepts are explored more
deeply in relation to each other, which also frames the main approach of the anthology.
As a basis, a specific understanding of “The Nature of the Unforeseen”, an expanded
and customized Bow-tie Model, as well as a clarification of the boundaries
enclosing the research field are compared to traditional risk analysis and training in
what is already known and in dealing with probable threats. Although the individual
studies reported in this anthology also have their own specific angles regarding these
concepts and models, they have nevertheless been based on these. The core focus is
also on learning in the light of organizational learning and SUR. The boundaries, challenges
and the anthology’s focus on learning are also expressed in the more general
and overall question: How can we as a society prepare ourselves for the unforeseen,
the events and threats at the outer reaches of what we have trained for? A more indepth
explanation about the background of this research project is also given in the
preface of the anthology."

2 Defining the Term Samhandling (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 16 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch2 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

"In this chapter we will demonstrate that samhandling has a different
qualitative meaning from other similar concepts. The term “samhandling” is used
by many organizations, researchers and textbook authors without clarifying the
rationale for its use (Torgersen & Steiro, 2009). The word samhandling is built on
a distinct cultural foundation. Therefore, we think it is necessary to describe Norwegian
culture briefly, to enable the reader to understand the basis of samhandling.
The chapter presents a definition of samhandling that was originally presented by
Torgersen & Steiro (2009). Samhandling is distinguished from cooperation/teamwork
by three core attributes which we can call the identity of samhandling: focus
on complementarity, exchange and utilization of the participants’ various skills,
experiences, backgrounds and cultures, and coordination of these factors in efforts
towards a common goal in a work situation or meeting. Samhandling has a higher
relative ambition level than the corresponding processes covered by the expressions
“collaboration”, “cooperation” and “coordination”. Increased complexity and
relations between stakeholders call for a focus on complementary handling in action,
that is, samhandling. The following competencies were identified in order for
good samhandling to occur: trust, assurance, well-being, belonging, clarity, time
and tolerance."

15 Competence for the Unforeseen (Book chapter)

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 34 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch15 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

"This study examines self-assessment of preparedness for unforeseen events
and how it varies between groups and individuals according to roles and functions
within an organization. The study has two objectives. The first is to analyse the relationship
between general self-efficacy, perceived competence in demanding situations and
social support, and based on this, to assess the efficiency of interaction (samhandling)
in organizations and preparedness for the unforeseen. The second aim is to examine
how these factors vary according to professional experience. A survey questionnaire
was completed during winter 2016/2017. All 624 respondents were male or female
employees of the Norwegian Armed Forces, based in different units, with different
levels of competence, and included commissioned and non-commissioned officers,
officer cadets and conscripts. The response rate was 77 percent, and a total of 810
personnel were approached. This study incorporates central concepts of individual
and social resources that could permit the prediction and understanding of resilient
behaviors in complex and demanding situations. Interaction was found to be the
most important predictor of preparedness for the unforeseen. This study also shows
that interaction combined with general self-efficacy and social support can account
for a considerable proportion of the variance in preparedness for the unforeseen. The
results indicate that it is possible to prepare for unforeseen events by implementing
measures that improve social factors in particular."

14 Samhandling Under Risk (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 17 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch14 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:08
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

"This chapter aims to examine how samhandling and concurrent learning
work together. “Concurrent learning” is a form of simultaneous learning, where
many learning processes related to samhandling take place at the same time. Samhandling
and concurrent learning are also functional processes, in the sense that
learning also occurs through daily interaction activities or actions. At the same time,
concurrent learning and samhandling are interdependent and they are, therefore, in
a sense part of the same process (hence concurrent learning). The chapter identifies
five factors identified as important to samhandling and concurrent learning. These
are: (1) Awareness of basic assumptions regarding people; relations and teamwork
are essential; (2) Space, (3) Giving of themselves, (4) Making processes transparent
and addressing problems as early as possible, and (5) Reflection as a key to samhandling
and concurrent learning. Samhandling and concurrent learning represent a
mindset, a way of working and a form of learning, which together help to meet and/
or develop the skills needed to tackle the challenges of flexible organizations."

10 Weltbürger Perspectives and Samhandling (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 10 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch10 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

"The chapter starts with a criticism of management and control concepts
that have been rooted in economic or psychological theories and models, although
society’s complexity and the pace of change will demand a broader and deeper foundation
for the development of effective management systems in the future. Other
voices need to be put forward. Immanuel Kant (1795/1991) argued for his idea of the
Weltbürger (“world citizen”), also known as “The Cosmopolitan Ideal”. His fundamental
philosophy is that all humans are welcome, regardless of time and place, and
that all humans are world citizens, regardless of nationality and cultural belonging
(Kant, 1795/1991). All people are co-citizens, independent of nationality and cultural
affiliation, and the Weltbürger is concerned with global problems and solutions.
Another central thinker is Jacques Derrida (1930–2004), a French philosopher and
writer particularly known for the term “Deconstruction”, which is about splitting up
words and phrases to find out what they really mean, in the light of the culture and
underlying attitudes. Human comprehension requires common words and phrases
(language), and a cultural and social context, both of which have formed the basis
for conceptual analysis of the terms “hospitality” and “threshold of tolerance”. The
conclusion is that the concepts of the Weltbürger and “hospitality” have important
values in and of themselves, and are ideas that are universal and timeless, providing
an important compass for samhandling."

28 Basic Structures for a New Theory of Samhandling Under Risk (SUR) (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 22 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch28 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:07
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

"This final chapter aggregates experiences and findings from the other
chapters of the book. The book’s overall research question is as follows: What are
the basic structures of the concept of samhandling under risk and how can samhandling
be created when the conditions are unpredictable? A number of SUR (Samhandling
Under Risk) structures are derived based on semantic theory construction,
and these are described in an overall definition and visualized in a model, which
in turn can form the basis of a SUR theory. These are organized under educational,
organizational and operational structures, as three superior competencies needed
to facilitate effective SUR. The essence is that there is a different basis for this type
of assessment than with traditional risk analysis, in order to achieve good samhandling
under risk and unforeseen conditions. This is concerned with what is needed
when little or nothing goes according to plan. It is then necessary to emphasize
on such matters more in depth and addition address other factors to achieve SUR
through samhandling where the conditions are predictable - where completed plans
and clear objectives work. For the learning level, valuation of inaccurate knowledge
and qualities is required to extract information from the disorder. For the
organizational level, it is important to create and/or maintain shared leadership
and at the operative level, improvisation is essential. When working with a SUR
paradigm, one must be able to accept unclear goals, be prepared to lose control
and create room for surprises. Leaders with SUR skills will be required to prepare organizations for this. Training and SUR should be incorporated into strategic
plans, management training and leadership development. An expansion of established
pedagogical models is also needed to achieve this aim. Invisible learning is
one approach. Samhandling does not simply happen in a vacuum, and the chapter
encourages further SUR research in a global perspective, where different languages
and cultures can contribute to enhanced understanding of SUR issues. As a starting
point for such an approach, we explore how the term is expressed in the Japanese
language. A more global approach to SUR structures can contribute to a deeper
understanding of what is needed, to avoid unwanted misunderstandings and crises,
learn from each other and solve complex and unforeseen situations through
samhandling."

9 Digital Samhandling in Education for the Unforeseen Future (Book chapter)

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 20 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch9 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

"This chapter aims to discuss whether digital interaction (samhandling) in
education requires a new pedagogy, which, to a greater extent than before, takes into
account risks and unforeseen events. The major focus is on digital samhandling between
teachers and students. Future education should prepare students for a world
in which samhandling between individuals is predicted to be increasingly digital. At
the same time, teachers currently refrain from using digital tools in order to interact
pedagogically with students. A “mixed methods” survey of 96 randomly-chosen
schoolteachers in primary and secondary schools in Norway shows that the respondents
give various reasons for using Learning Management Systems (LMS) to a greater
extent for administrative purposes than for pedagogical ones. The main obstacle
is that teachers do not know exactly how digital samhandling should be facilitated
educationally and what the consequences may be for the students and education in
general. The conclusion is that the future is unknown, and the unforeseen is partly
learned through teachers’ professional judgment. Therefore, “new” pedagogy need
not necessarily consist of more educational models and theories of “what works.”
Perhaps the “new” pedagogy should be, to a greater extent, based on samhandling
literacy and problem-based learning?"

6 Apprenticeship Learning in Preparation for Meeting the Unforeseen (Book chapter)

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 34 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch6 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

"The chapter analyzes teaching where the goal is to enable students at the
Armed Forces Staff College to master unforeseen events. The students are all participants
in a program for joint operations in which different military branches are placed
together to solve complex tasks. How can the supervisor contribute to increased
samhandling when facing the unforeseen? The goal is for students to be able to cope
with the roles that exist in a normal NATO headquarters and to learn how to use
NATO’s operational planning strategy. The group supervisor becomes a form of
master who greatly influences the approach of students to the training community.
From a sample of one hundred students, five groups consisting of four to five students
of both sexes, with varied defense-force affiliations, backgrounds and experience
were selected to be interviewed. A total of 23 informants participated in the
interviews. In addition, observations were carried out. Apprenticeship Learning as a
method is appropriate to prepare the students better for samhandling in anticipation
of the unforeseen. The way the supervisor manages his or her role has a great deal of
impact on samhandling and learning outcomes. The supervisor’s insight and expertise
in what is needed to make groups work together is decisive. Strengthening and
developing samhandling in exercises is a suitable educational method for military
forces in meeting unforeseen events, provided that it is done properly."

8 The Relevance of Samhandling in Military Doctrines (Book chapter)

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 26 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch8 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

"Military leaders are faced with high expectations when it comes to handling
unforeseen situations in joint military operations. This chapter aims to present
a nuanced professional and pedagogical discussion of how an increased awareness
of the concept of samhandling in the use of military doctrines may contribute to
the professionalization of military higher education. Different doctrines reflect different
theoretical decisions. They are given relevance in education as a way to illustrate
formal examples of what is preferred and what is rejected. As doctrines are
built on experiences from real-life scenarios, as well as on predictions and strategies
for possible change, they may serve as a way of balancing the branch-specific “hidden
curriculum”, i.e. an established culture with a set of current values, behavior and
thinking that have been developed over time in the organization. The findings in
the current case study indicate that military doctrines are regarded as important in
leadership training at the Norwegian Military Academy, especially when it comes
to understanding and guiding samhandling in unforeseen and risk-oriented situations.
However, at the same time, the terms used to describe samhandling in military
doctrines found relevant in education at the Norwegian Military Academy are numerous,
vague and somewhat overlapping. It seems crucial to raise awareness of the
underlying processes and the relational ambition level that forms the basis of the chosen
term. It is advantageous to reach a collective understanding of the kind of skills
that need to be developed and trained. Another benefit of such analysis is to provide a
basis for clarified learning goals and practical scenario development through exercises
and other teaching plans in leadership education, as well as the evaluation of this,
both in terms of learning outcomes and education as a whole."

Listing 1 - 9 of 9
Sort by
Narrow your search