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Biodiversity in Locally Managed Lands

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ISBN: 9783038424543 9783038424550 Year: Pages: VIII, 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-455-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-16 12:19:31
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This volume assembles papers that provide empirical evidence for the success or otherwise of landscape and community or local government managed initiatives to conserve biodiversity. The papers report successful biodiversity conservation projects that have operated at those scales as well as documenting cases where these approaches were attempted but were less successful. The papers identify the conditions under which these local and landscape approaches have succeeded and those under which they have been less successful.

Fire Regimes: Spatial and Temporal Variability and Their Effects on Forests

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ISBN: 9783038423904 9783038423911 Year: Pages: VIII, 424 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-391-1
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-02 09:58:44
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Fire regimes (occurrence, cycle, severity, size, etc.) are key factors in many forest ecosystems, as they are often critical drivers of forest composition, dynamics, and ecosystem processes. Fire regimes vary in space and time according to climatic, physical and biological factors. A better understanding of the interacting factors controlling fire regimes may contribute to improving fire and forest management and their future projection in the context of global change. Knowledge of how fire regimes affect natural landscapes is also used in forestry as a template to manage the forest for wood production. This approach, keeping biodiversity and ecological processes associated with natural fire regimes, may also help in maintaining forest productivity and resilience in the face of climate change. This Special Issue aims to synthesize current understanding of factors affecting fire regime characteristics, to present recent research on fire regimes and their effects on forest ecosystems, and to illustrate how this knowledge could be translated into forest or fire management strategies in the context of global change.

Forest Pathology and Plant Health

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ISBN: 9783038426714 9783038426721 Year: Pages: VIII, 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-672-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 13:57:31
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Every year, a number of new forest pathosystems are discovered as the result of introduction of alien pathogens, host shifts and jumps, hybridization and recombination among pathogens, etc. Disease outbreaks may also be favored by climate change and forest management. The mechanisms driving the resurgence of native pathogens and the invasion of alien ones need to be better understood in order to draft sustainable control strategies. For this Special Issue, we welcome population biology studies providing insights on the epidemiology and invasiveness of emergent forest pathogens possibly by contrasting different scenarios varying in pathogen and host populations size, genetics, phenotype and phenology, landscape fragmentation, occurrence of disturbances, management practices, etc. Both experimental and monitoring approaches are welcome. In summary, this special issue focuses on how variability in hosts, pathogens, or ecology may affect the emergence of new threats to plant species.

Coastal Morphodynamics

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ISBN: 9783038426769 9783038426752 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-675-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 14:00:59
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Every year, a number of new forest pathosystems are discovered as the result of introduction of alien pathogens, host shifts and jumps, hybridization and recombination among pathogens, etc. Disease outbreaks may also be favored by climate change and forest management. The mechanisms driving the resurgence of native pathogens and the invasion of alien ones need to be better understood in order to draft sustainable control strategies. For this Special Issue, we welcome population biology studies providing insights on the epidemiology and invasiveness of emergent forest pathogens possibly by contrasting different scenarios varying in pathogen and host populations size, genetics, phenotype and phenology, landscape fragmentation, occurrence of disturbances, management practices, etc. Both experimental and monitoring approaches are welcome. In summary, this special issue focuses on how variability in hosts, pathogens, or ecology may affect the emergence of new threats to plant species.

Studying Tree Responses to Extreme Events

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451920 Year: Pages: 466 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-192-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Trees are among the longest-living organisms. They are sensitive to extreme climatic events and document the effects of environmental changes in form of structural modifications of their tissues. These modifications represent an integrated signal of complex biological responses enforced by the environment. For example, temporal change in stem increment integrates multiple information of tree performance, and wood anatomical traits may be altered by climatic extremes or environmental stress. Recent developments in preparative tools and computational image analysis enable to quantify changes in wood anatomical features, like vessel density or vessel size. Thus, impacts on their functioning can be related to climatic forcing factors. Similarly, new developments in monitoring (cambial) phenology and mechanistic modelling are enlightening the interrelationships between environmental factors, wood formation and tree performance and mortality. Quantitative wood anatomy is a reliable indicator of drought occurrence during the growing season, and therefore has been studied intensively in recent years. The variability in wood anatomy not only alters the biological and hydraulic functioning of a tree, but may also influence the technological properties of wood, with substantial impacts in forestry. On a larger scale, alterations of sapwood and phloem area and their ratios to other functional traits provide measures to detect changes in a tree’s life functions, and increasing risk of drought-induced mortality with possible impacts on hydrological processes and species composition of plant communities. Genetic variability within and across populations is assumed to be crucial for species survival in an unpredictable future world. The magnitude of genetic variation and heritability of adaptive traits might define the ability to adapt to climate change. Is there a relation between genetic variability and resilience to climate change? Is it possible to link genetic expression and climate change to obtain deeper knowledge of functional genetics? To derive precise estimates of genetic determinism it is important to define adaptive traits in wood properties and on a whole-tree scale. Understanding the mechanisms ruling these processes is fundamental to assess the impact of extreme climate events on forest ecosystems, and to provide realistic scenarios of tree responses to changing climates. Wood is also a major carbon sink with a long-term residence, impacting the global carbon cycle. How well do we understand the link between wood growth dynamics, wood carbon allocation and the global carbon cycle? Papers contribution to this Research Topic will cover a wide range of ecosystems. However, special relevance will be given to Mediterranean-type areas. These involve coastal regions of four continents, making Mediterranean-type ecosystems extremely interesting for investigating the potential impacts of global change on growth and for studying responses of woody plants under extreme environmental conditions. For example, the ongoing trend towards warmer temperatures and reduced precipitation can increase the susceptibility to fire and pests. The EU-funded COST Action STREeSS (Studying Tree Responses to extreme Events: a SynthesiS) addresses such crucial tree biological and forest ecological issues by providing a collection of important methodological and scientific insights, about the current state of knowledge, and by opinions for future research needs.

Ecological Management of Pine Forests

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038974253 / 9783038974260 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-426-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Forestry --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-25 11:16:47
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Natural pine forests characterize many landscapes preserved over time, either as a result of a specific forest management practice or a disturbance. In the event of a lack of management over a long period of time, these formations could evolve with increasingly chaotic structures towards other formations. This process can lead to landscape change, the spread of insects and pathogens, and the risk of fires and watercourse obstruction. Pine forest plantations should be considered as transient tree populations, destined to evolve into more complex and stable formations. However, sometimes they should be preserved for their cultural value. Careful management of these forests also takes into account the close relationship between forest and human settlements. As a first step, ecological management assumes the definition of these two macro types. These approaches include the application of integrated methods for determining the reference conditions of the main functional and structural ecosystem components of forests. The reference conditions are the historical (or natural) variability range of ecological structures and processes, reflecting the recent evolution and dynamic interaction of biotic and abiotic conditions and patterns of disturbance. These conditions form the basis for comparison with contemporary ecosystem processes and structures and are a frame of reference for designing ecological restoration treatments and conservation plans. The productive aspects must not be overlooked; rather, they have to be considered, planned, and managed with a perspective of sustainability and ecosystem functionality. This should be considered for a common approach to forest management, for a forest rehabilitation, and for forest restoration activities.

Causes and Consequences of Species Diversity in Forest Ecosystems

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213092 / 9783039213108 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-310-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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What are the causes and consequences of species diversity in forested ecosystems, and how is this species diversity being affected by rapid environmental and climatic change, movement of invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores into new biogeographic regions, and expanding human populations and associated shifts in land-use patterns? In this book, we explore these questions for assemblages of forest trees, shrubs, and understory herbs at spatial scales ranging from small plots to large forest dynamics plots, at temporal scales ranging from seasons to centuries, in both temperate and tropical regions, and across rural-to-urban gradients in land use.

Keywords

Ericaceae --- variation partitioning --- climate --- species-area relationship --- mid-domain effect --- spatial patterns --- individual species-area relationship --- tropical evergreen mixed forest --- competition and facilitation --- Vietnam --- microarthropod --- diversity --- seasonal variations --- stand development --- biodiversity --- climate --- human footprint --- productivity --- topography --- USDA Forest Service --- herbaceous layer --- excess nitrogen --- canopy structure --- temperate forests --- Fagus sylvatica --- Pinus sylvestris --- Picea abies --- Pseudotsuga menziesii --- forest management --- tree species diversity --- forest conversion --- gamma diversity --- landscape scale --- Biodiversity Exploratories --- climate change --- temperature --- precipitation --- Hubbard Brook --- elevational shifts --- mountains --- species diversity --- structural complexity --- legacies --- wind damage --- uprooting --- trunk breakage --- understory plant communities --- natural disturbance-based silviculture --- forest management --- species conservation --- northern hardwood forests --- abundance --- Bray-Curtis --- codispersion analysis --- Smithsonian ForestGEO --- Shannon diversity --- Simpson diversity --- spatial analysis --- species richness --- windthrow --- tornado --- tree species --- disturbance severity --- tree regeneration --- salvaging --- salvage logging --- succession --- Climatic change --- species diversity --- potential habitats --- China --- Maxent --- Salicaceae --- herbaceous perennial species --- household respondents --- questionnaire survey --- species richness --- woody species --- temperate forests --- species richness --- assemblage lineage diversity --- phylogenetic diversity --- evolutionary diversity --- United States --- trees --- TILD

Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling in Forest Soils

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ISBN: 9783038976820 / 9783038976837 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-683-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The majority of carbon stored in the soils of the world is stored in forests. The refractory nature of some portions of forest soil organic matter also provides the slow, gradual release of organic nitrogen and phosphorus to sustain long term forest productivity. Contemporary and future disturbances, such as climatic warming, deforestation, short rotation sylviculture, the invasion of exotic species, and fire, all place strains on the integrity of this homeostatic system of C, N, and P cycling. On the other hand, the CO2 fertilization effect may partially offset losses of soil organic matter, but many have questioned the ability of N and P stocks to sustain the CO2 fertilization effect.

Keywords

carbon distribution index --- moisture gradient --- soil organic matter fraction --- soil degradation --- soil available nitrogen --- soil available phosphorus --- temperature --- stand density --- charcoal --- forest soil --- carbon mineralization --- microbial activity --- nitrification --- polyphenols --- temperature --- soil microbial communities --- PLFA --- seasons --- nitrogen dynamics --- gross nitrogen transformations --- Daxing’an Mountains --- climatic factors --- soil nutrients --- forest types --- principal component analyses --- soil structure --- soil pH --- Oxisol --- variable-charge soils --- aluminum accumulator --- seasonal trends --- beech forests --- soil enzymes --- organic matter --- multilevel models --- near natural forest management --- Pinus massoniana plantation --- Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation --- soil greenhouse gas flux --- biolability --- tree-DOM --- dissolved organic matter (DOM) --- carbon --- dissolved organic carbon (DOC) --- stemflow --- throughfall --- alpine forest --- ammonia-oxidizing bacteria --- ammonia-oxidizing archaea --- ammonium --- nitrate --- revegetation --- microbial biomass --- chloroform fumigation extraction --- enzyme activities --- stoichiometric homeostasis --- the Three Gorges Reservoir --- Eucalyptus sp. --- wood volume --- second production cycle --- annual increment average --- soil fertility --- nutrient cycling --- Chamaecyparis forest --- humic substances --- 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P NMR) --- P species --- topography --- net primary productivity --- climate zone --- climate --- soil N --- litter N --- climate change --- manuring --- manure pelleting --- northern temperate --- pyrolysis --- information review --- leaf N:P ratio --- P resorption efficiency --- soil P fractions --- P stock --- stand age

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