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Collider Physics within the Standard Model: A Primer

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Book Series: Lecture Notes in Physics ISSN: 0075-8450 ISBN: 9783319519197 9783319519203 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-51920-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-26 17:06:33
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With this graduate-level primer, the principles of the standard model of particle physics receive a particular skillful, personal and enduring exposition by one of the great contributors to the field.In 2013 the late Prof. Altarelli wrote: The discovery of the Higgs boson and the non-observation of new particles or exotic phenomena have made a big step towards completing the experimental confirmation of the standard model of fundamental particle interactions. It is thus a good moment for me to collect, update and improve my graduate lecture notes on quantum chromodynamics and the theory of electroweak interactions, with main focus on collider physics. I hope that these lectures can provide an introduction to the subject for the interested reader, assumed to be already familiar with quantum field theory and some basic facts in elementary particle physics as taught in undergraduate courses.

Principles of Mechanics

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Book Series: Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation ISBN: 9783030151959 Year: Pages: 173 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-15195-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:03
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This open access textbook takes the reader step-by-step through the concepts of mechanics in a clear and detailed manner. Mechanics is considered to be the core of physics, where a deep understanding of the concepts is essential in understanding all branches of physics. Many proofs and examples are included to help the reader grasp the fundamentals fully, paving the way to deal with more advanced topics. After solving all of the examples, the reader will have gained a solid foundation in mechanics and the skills to apply the concepts in a variety of situations. The book is useful for undergraduate students majoring in physics and other science and engineering disciplines. It can also be used as a reference for more advanced levels.

Bordieuan Field Theory as an Instrument for Military Operational Analysis

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Book Series: New Security Challenges ISBN: 9783319653518 9783319653525 Year: Pages: 123 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-65352-5 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Military Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-23 17:29:39
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This book uses Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory as a lens through which to examine military operations. Novel in its approach, this innovative text provides a better, more nuanced understanding of the modern ‘battlespace’, particularly in instances of prolonged low-intensity conflict. Formed in two parts, this book primarily explores the scope of Bourdien theory before secondly providing a detailed case study of the Yugoslavian succession war of 1990-1992. Gunneriusson suggests that although theories do not necessarily provide answers, they do help us ask better questions. This volume suggests news lines of interdisciplinary investigation that will be of interest to members of armed forces, practitioners from NGOs, and policymakers.

Higher Spin Gauge Theories

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038429975 9783038429982 Year: Pages: X, 448 Language: english
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-09 15:16:01
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This book collects various original contributions to the subject of higher spin gauge theory, as well as four review papers on the topic. The papers investigate the role of gauge fields with spin higher than two in the framework of classical and quantum field theories, the AdS/CFT correspondence and string theory.

Tensor Network Contractions

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Lecture Notes in Physics ISBN: 9783030344894 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-34489-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Computer Science --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:17
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Tensor network is a fundamental mathematical tool with a huge range of applications in physics, such as condensed matter physics, statistic physics, high energy physics, and quantum information sciences. This open access book aims to explain the tensor network contraction approaches in a systematic way, from the basic definitions to the important applications. This book is also useful to those who apply tensor networks in areas beyond physics, such as machine learning and the big-data analysis. Tensor network originates from the numerical renormalization group approach proposed by K. G. Wilson in 1975. Through a rapid development in the last two decades, tensor network has become a powerful numerical tool that can efficiently simulate a wide range of scientific problems, with particular success in quantum many-body physics. Varieties of tensor network algorithms have been proposed for different problems. However, the connections among different algorithms are not well discussed or reviewed. To fill this gap, this book explains the fundamental concepts and basic ideas that connect and/or unify different strategies of the tensor network contraction algorithms. In addition, some of the recent progresses in dealing with tensor decomposition techniques and quantum simulations are also represented in this book to help the readers to better understand tensor network. This open access book is intended for graduated students, but can also be used as a professional book for researchers in the related fields. To understand most of the contents in the book, only basic knowledge of quantum mechanics and linear algebra is required. In order to fully understand some advanced parts, the reader will need to be familiar with notion of condensed matter physics and quantum information, that however are not necessary to understand the main parts of the book. This book is a good source for non-specialists on quantum physics to understand tensor network algorithms and the related mathematics.

Neural Masses and Fields: Modelling the Dynamics of Brain Activity

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194278 Year: Pages: 237 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-427-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Biophysical modelling of brain activity has a long and illustrious history and has recently profited from technological advances that furnish neuroimaging data at an unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. Neuronal modelling is a very active area of research, with applications ranging from the characterization of neurobiological and cognitive processes, to constructing artificial brains in silico and building brain-machine interface and neuroprosthetic devices. Biophysical modelling has always benefited from interdisciplinary interactions between different and seemingly distant fields; ranging from mathematics and engineering to linguistics and psychology. This Research Topic aims to promote such interactions by promoting papers that contribute to a deeper understanding of neural activity as measured by fMRI or electrophysiology.In general, mean field models of neural activity can be divided into two classes: neural mass and neural field models. The main difference between these classes is that field models prescribe how a quantity characterizing neural activity (such as average depolarization of a neural population) evolves over both space and time as opposed to mass models, which characterize activity over time only; by assuming that all neurons in a population are located at (approximately) the same point. This Research Topic focuses on both classes of models and considers several aspects and their relative merits that: span from synapses to the whole brain; comparisons of their predictions with EEG and MEG spectra of spontaneous brain activity; evoked responses, seizures, and fitting data - to infer brain states and map physiological parameters.

Particle Physics Reference Library

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783030342456 Year: Pages: 863 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-34245-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Mathematics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-16 23:59:41
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This third open access volume of the handbook series deals with accelerator physics, design, technology and operations, as well as with beam optics, dynamics and diagnostics. A joint CERN-Springer initiative, the “Particle Physics Reference Library” provides revised and updated contributions based on previously published material in the well-known Landolt-Boernstein series on particle physics, accelerators and detectors (volumes 21A,B1,B2,C), which took stock of the field approximately one decade ago. Central to this new initiative is publication under full open access

Non-Linear Lattice

ISBN: 9783038423065 9783038423072 Year: Pages: XVI, 274 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-28 09:52:41
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The development of mathematical techniques, combined with new possibilities of computational simulation, have greatly broadened the study of non-linear lattices, a theme among the most refined and interdisciplinary-oriented in the field of mathematical physics. This Special Issue mainly focuses on state-of-the-art advancements concerning the many facets of non-linear lattices, from the theoretical ones to more applied ones. The non-linear and discrete systems play a key role in all ranges of physical experience, from macrophenomena to condensed matter, up to some models of space discrete space-time.

Symmetry in Quantum Optics Models

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ISBN: 9783039218585 9783039218592 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-859-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:39:37
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Prototypical quantum optics models, such as the Jaynes–Cummings, Rabi, Tavis–Cummings, and Dicke models, are commonly analyzed with diverse techniques, including analytical exact solutions, mean-field theory, exact diagonalization, and so on. Analysis of these systems strongly depends on their symmetries, ranging, e.g., from a U(1) group in the Jaynes–Cummings model to a Z2 symmetry in the full-fledged quantum Rabi model. In recent years, novel regimes of light–matter interactions, namely, the ultrastrong and deep-strong coupling regimes, have been attracting an increasing amount of interest. The quantum Rabi and Dicke models in these exotic regimes present new features, such as collapses and revivals of the population, bounces of photon-number wave packets, as well as the breakdown of the rotating-wave approximation. Symmetries also play an important role in these regimes and will additionally change depending on whether the few- or many-qubit systems considered have associated inhomogeneous or equal couplings to the bosonic mode. Moreover, there is a growing interest in proposing and carrying out quantum simulations of these models in quantum platforms such as trapped ions, superconducting circuits, and quantum photonics. In this Special Issue Reprint, we have gathered a series of articles related to symmetry in quantum optics models, including the quantum Rabi model and its symmetries, Floquet topological quantum states in optically driven semiconductors, the spin–boson model as a simulator of non-Markovian multiphoton Jaynes–Cummings models, parity-assisted generation of nonclassical states of light in circuit quantum electrodynamics, and quasiprobability distribution functions from fractional Fourier transforms.

Cosmological Inflation, Dark Matter and Dark Energy

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ISBN: 9783039217649 9783039217656 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-765-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Various cosmological observations support not only cosmological inflation in the early universe, which is also known as exponential cosmic expansion, but also that the expansion of the late-time universe is accelerating. To explain this phenomenon, the existence of dark energy is proposed. In addition, according to the rotation curve of galaxies, the existence of dark matter, which does not shine, is also suggested. If primordial gravitational waves are detected in the future, the mechanism for realizing inflation can be revealed. Moreover, there exist two main candidates for dark matter. The first is a new particle, the existence of which is predicted in particle physics. The second is an astrophysical object which is not found by electromagnetic waves. Furthermore, there are two representative approaches to account for the accelerated expansion of the current universe. One is to assume the unknown dark energy in general relativity. The other is to extend the gravity theory to large scales. Investigation of the origins of inflation, dark matter, and dark energy is one of the most fundamental problems in modern physics and cosmology. The purpose of this book is to explore the physics and cosmology of inflation, dark matter, and dark energy.

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