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ATP-gated P2X receptors in Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194056 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-405-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Extracellular ATP is currently recognized as one of the most widely distributed neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the peripheral and central nervous system. ATP-gated P2X receptors are expressed by neurons, glial and many other non-neuronal cells and represent an attractive target for therapeutic interventions. Diverse molecular and cellular mechanisms have been identified for P2X receptor functioning, including the ability to enlarge the size of the ion pore associated with the release of several key immune molecules. A major recent breakthrough was the determination of the X-ray crystal structures of zebrafish P2X4 receptor in ATP-bound and ATP-free states. The P2X receptor research field is rapidly growing, as evidenced by the almost 2000 papers published in the last 5 years. However, despite the fundamental signalling function of extracellular ATP in the nervous system, the widespread roles of P2X receptors have not been widely elucidated and presented in textbooks. In this volume of papers we aim to gather a collection of high quality papers, detailing the latest insights from the most accomplished international P2X receptor researchers. Importantly, basic research into P2X receptors has a strong translational impact and our collection of articles could be a valuable guide for the development of new pharmacological and biotechnological tools addressing the function of P2X receptors. Within this collection we plan to cover receptor structure-function relationships, receptors trafficking, to highlight the special properties of P2X receptors and their pharmacological profiles, and to describe the translational aspects of cellular ATP signaling in pain and in other neurological and vascular diseases.

Plant Mitochondria

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ISBN: 9783038975502 / 9783038975519 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-551-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-19 09:53:15
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The primary function of mitochondria is respiration, where the catabolism of substrates is coupled to ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. In plants, mitochondrial composition is relatively complex and flexible and has specific pathways to support photosynthetic processes in illuminated leaves. Plant mitochondria also play important roles in a variety of cellular processes associated with carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur metabolism. Research on plant mitochondria has rapidly developed in the last few decades with the availability of the genome sequences for a wide range of model and crop plants. Recent prominent themes in plant mitochondrial research include linking mitochondrial composition to environmental stress responses, and how this oxidative stress impacts on the plant mitochondrial function. Similarly, interest in the signaling capacity of mitochondria, the role of reactive oxygen species, and retrograde and anterograde signaling has revealed the transcriptional changes of stress responsive genes as a framework to define specific signals emanating to and from the mitochondrion. There has also been considerable interest in the unique RNA metabolic processes in plant mitochondria, including RNA transcription, RNA editing, the splicing of group I and group II introns, and RNA degradation and translation. Despite their identification more than 100 years ago, plant mitochondria remain a significant area of research in the plant sciences. This Special Issue, “Plant Mitochondria”, will cover a selection of recent research topics and timely review articles in the field of plant mitochondrial research.

Extracellular Nucleotides in the Regulation of Kidney Functions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195046 Year: Pages: 77 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-504-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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ATP is normally regarded as the major source of fuel for the energy-demanding processes within cells; however, ATP and other nucleotides (such as ADP, UTP, UDP) can be released from cells, where they act as autocrine or paracrine signaling molecules to affect cellular and tissue functions. In response to various stimuli, ATP and other nucleotides are released from cells in a regulated fashion, either by exocytosis of nucleotide-containing vesicles, or through channels in the plasma membrane. This process occurs in virtually every organ or cell in the body. The cellular effects of these extracellular nucleotides are mediated through specific membrane receptors (P2X and P2Y). These nucleotide signals can be terminated by rapid degradation of the ligand molecules by ecto-nucleotidases (e.g., NTPDases and NPPs). Many of the molecular components essential to nucleotide signaling have been cloned and characterized in detail, and their crystal structures are beginning to emerge. The collected data on extracellular nucleotides suggest a vivid and dynamic signaling system that is modulated by the expression and sensitivity of specific receptors on cells, and by the regulated release and extracellular degradation of ATP and other nucleotides; thus creating a microenvironment of highly regulated paracrine or autocrine control mechanisms. Within the kidney, extracellular nucleotides have emerged as potent modulators of glomerular, tubular, and microvascular functions. These functions include, but are not limited to, tubular transport of water and sodium, tubuloglomerular feedback and auto-regulation, regulation of blood pressure and the microcirculation, oxidative stress, and cell proliferation/ necrosis/apoptosis. Moreover, studies have also uncovered the interaction of nucleotide signaling with other mediators of renal function, such as vasopressin, aldosterone, nitric oxide, prostaglandins, angiotensin II, and the ATP-break down product adenosine. These insights have provided a more comprehensive and cohesive picture of the role of extracellular nucleotides in the regulation of renal function in health and disease. The availability of transgenic mouse models of the key proteins involved in nucleotide signaling has markedly enhanced our understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological roles of the different components of the system in the kidney. Although at a preliminary stage, the pathophysiological significance of this system in the kidney holds the key for the development of an entirely new class of drugs for the treatment of disease conditions, including disorders of water and/or sodium homeostasis, hypertension, acute kidney injury, etc. Thus, the regulation of renal function by extracellular nucleotides is clearly emerging as a distinct field and discipline in renal physiology and pathophysiology that has the potential to develop new drug treatments. In this e-book, we bring together a spectrum of excellent papers by leading experts in the field which present and discuss the latest developments and state-of-the-art technologies.Last but not least, we thank all the authors for contributing their valuable work and the Frontiers in Physiology Editorial Office for bringing out this e-book.

Selected Papers from the 8th Symposium on Micro-Nano Science and Technology on Micromachines

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ISBN: 9783038977285 / 9783038977292 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-729-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This Special Issue presents selected papers from the 8th

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