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The Search for Biological Active Agent(s) From Actinobacteria

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455676 Year: Pages: 312 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-567-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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There is a large market demand for new drugs. The existing chronic or common ailments without cures, development of new diseases with unknown causes, and the widespread existence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, have driven this field of research further by looking at all potential sources of natural products. To date, microbes have made a significant contribution to the health and well-being of people globally. The discoveries of useful metabolites produced by microbes have resulted in a significant proportion of pharmaceutical products in today’s market. Therefore, the investigation and identification of bioactive compound(s) producing microbes is always of great interest to researchers.

Actinobacteria are one of the most important and efficient groups of natural metabolite producers. Among the numerous genera, Streptomyces have been recognized as prolific producers of useful natural compounds, as they provide more than half of the naturally-occurring antibiotics isolated to-date and continue to emerge as the primary source of new bioactive compounds. Certainly, these potentials have attracted ample research interest and a wide range of biological activities have been subsequently screened by researchers with the utilization of different In vitro and In vivo model of experiments. Literature evidence has shown that a significant number of interesting compounds produced by Actinobacteria were exhibiting either strong anticancer or neuroprotective activity. The further in depth studies have then established the modulation of apoptotic pathway was involved in those observed bioactivities. These findings indirectly prove the biopharmaceutical potential possessed by Actinobacteria and at the same time substantiate the importance of diverse pharmaceutical evaluations on Actinobacteria. In fact, many novel compounds discovered from Actinobacteria with strong potential in clinical applications have been developed into new drugs by pharmaceutical companies. Together with the advancement in science and technology, it is predicted that there would be an expedition in discoveries of new bioactive compounds producing Actinobacteria from various sources, including soil and marine sources. In light of these current needs, and great interest in the scope of this research, this book seeks to contribute on the investigation of different biological active compound(s) producing actinobacteria which are exhibiting antimicrobial, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anticancer activities and similar.

Microbiotechnology Based Surfactants and Their Applications

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197521 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-752-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Biosurfactants are structurally diverse group of bioactive molecules produced by a variety of microorganisms. They are secondary metabolites that accumulate at interfaces, reduce surface tension and form micellar aggregates. This research topic describes few novel microbial strains with a focus on increasing our understanding of genetics, physiology, regulation of biosurfactant production and their commercial potentials. A major stumbling block in the commercialization of biosurfactants is their high cost of production. Many factors play a significant role in making the process cost-effective and the most important one being the use of low-cost substrates such as agricultural residues for the production of biosurfactants. With the stringent government regulations coming into effect in favor of production and usage of the bio-based surfactants, many new companies aim to commercialize technologies used for the production of biosurfactants and to bring down costs. This Research Topic covers a compilation of original research articles, reviews and research commentary submitted by researchers enthusiastically working in the field of biosurfactants and highlights recent advances in our knowledge of the biosurfactants and understanding of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in their production, scale-up and industrial applications. Apart from their diverse applications in the field of bioremediation, enhanced oil recovery, cosmetic, food and medical industries, biosurfactants can also boast off their unique eco-friendly nature to attract consumers and give the chemical surfactants a tough competition in the global market. This biosurfactant focused research topic aims to summarize the current achievements and explore the direction of development for the future generation of biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers. Some of the biosurfactant optimization processes presented are well-structured and already have a well-established research community. We wish to stimulate on-going discussions at the level of the biosurfactant production including common challenges in the process development, novel organisms and new feedstock and technologies for maximum benefit, key features of next generation biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers. We have compiled the research outputs of international leaders in the filed of biosurfactant particularly on the development of a state-of-the-art and highly-efficient process platform.

Actinobacteria in Special and Extreme Habitats: Diversity; Function Roles and Environmental Adaptations

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450138 Year: Pages: 229 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-013-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Actinobacteria are highly diverse prokaryotes that are ubiquitous in soil, freshwater and marine ecosystems. Although various studies have focused on the ecology of this phylum, data are still scant on the diversity, abundance and ecology of actinobacteria endemic to special and extreme environments, such as gut, plant, alkaline saline soil, deep sea sediments, hot springs and other habitats. Actinobacteria are well-known producers of a vast array of secondary metabolites, many of which have useful applications in medicine and agriculture. Furthermore, actinobacteria also have diverse functions in different environments apart from antibiotic production. For example, actinobacteria are reported to contribute to the break-down and recycling of organic compounds. They play a significant role in fixation of nitrogen, improvement plant growth, biodegradation, bioremediation and environmental protection. Therefore, understanding the actinobacterial diversity and distribution in such special environments is important in deciphering the ecological roles of these microorganisms and for biotechnological bioprospecting. Recent advances in cultivation, DNA sequencing technologies and -omics (metagenomics, metaproteomics etc) methods have greatly contributed to the rapid advancement of our understanding of microbial diversity, function and they interactions with environment. Furthermore, comparative genomic studies can provide overall information about actinobacterial speciation, evolution, metabolism and environment adaptation mechanisms. This research topic comprising reviews and original articles highlights the recent advances regarding the unexpectedly diverse/rare group of actinobacteria with special selective isolation methods or culture-independent methods, as well as their biological activities, ecophysiologica function and mechanisms from diverse special and extreme environments.

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