Search results: Found 3

Listing 1 - 3 of 3
Sort by
ACTH Action in the Adrenal Cortex: From Molecular Biology to Pathophysiology

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452323 Year: Pages: 421 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-232-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

By stimulating adrenal gland and corticosteroid synthesis, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) plays a central role in response to stress. In this Research Topic, a particular attention has been given to the recent developments on adrenocortical zonation; the growth-promoting activities of ACTH; the various steps involved in acute and chronic regulation of steroid secretion by ACTH, including the effect of ACTH on circadian rhythms of glucocorticoid secretion. The Research Topic also reviews progress and challenges surrounding the properties of ACTH binding to the MC2 receptor (MC2R), including the importance of melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) in MC2R expression and function, the various intracellular signaling cascades, which involve not only protein kinase A, the key mediator of ACTH action, but also phosphatases, phosphodiesterases, ion channels and the cytoskeleton. The importance of the proteins involved in the cell detoxification is also considered, in particular the effect that ACTH has on protection against reactive oxygen species generated during steroidogenesis. The impact of the cellular microenvironment, including local production of ACTH is discussed, both as an important factor in the maintenance of homeostasis, but also in pathological situations, such as severe inflammation. Finally, the Research Topic reviews the role that the pituitary-adrenal axis may have in the development of metabolic disorders. In addition to mutations or alterations of expression of genes encoding components of the steroidogenesis and signaling pathways, chronic stress and sleep disturbance are both associated with hyperactivity of the adrenal gland. A resulting effect is increased glucocorticoid secretion inducing food intake and weight gain, which, in turn, leads to insulin and leptin resistance. These aspects are described in detail in this Research Topic by key investigators in the field. Many of the aspects addressed in this Research Topic still represent a stimulus for future studies, their outcome aimed at providing evidence of the central position occupied by the adrenal cortex in many metabolic functions when its homeostasis is disrupted. An in-depth investigation of the mechanisms underlying these pathways will be invaluable in developing new therapeutic tools and strategies.

Molecular Basis of Cardiovascular Diseases: Implications of Natriuretic Peptides

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039215829 / 9783039215836 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-583-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Cardiovascular
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The natriuretic peptides (NPs) family includes a class of hormones and their receptors needed for the physiological control of cardiovascular functions. The discovery of NPs provided a fundamental contribution into our understanding of the physiological regulation of blood pressure, and of heart and kidney functions. NPs have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including hypertension, atherosclerosis, heart failure, and stroke. A fine comprehension of the molecular mechanisms dependent from NPs and underlying the promotion of cardiovascular damage has contributed to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of all major CVDs. Finally, the opportunity to target NPs in order to develop new therapeutic tools for a better treatment of CVDs has been developed over the years. The current Special Issue of the Journal covers all major aspects of the molecular implications of NPs in physiology and pathology of the cardiovascular system, including NP-based therapeutic approaches.

Keywords

PCSK9 --- natriuretic peptides --- adipose tissue --- lipid metabolism --- LDL receptor --- insulin --- natriuretic peptides --- hypertension --- stroke --- cardiac hypertrophy --- linkage analysis --- genetic variants --- animal models --- BNP --- NT-proBNP --- heart failure --- cardiac dysfunction --- forensic medicine --- postmortem biochemistry --- angiotensin receptor–neprilysin inhibitor --- natriuretic peptides --- renin–angiotensin system --- heart failure --- arterial hypertension --- natriuretic peptide --- vascular --- endothelial cell --- cardiomyocyte --- fibroblast --- inflammation --- heart failure --- hypertension --- angiogenesis --- heart failure --- natriuretic peptides --- preserved ejection fraction --- natriuretic peptides --- heart failure --- atrial fibrillation --- remodeling --- Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (IPAH) --- Natriuretic Peptide Clearance Receptor (NPR-C) signaling --- atrial natriuretic peptide --- hypertension --- heart failure --- cardiometabolic disease --- obesity --- metabolic syndrome --- cGMP --- guanylyl cyclase receptor A --- natriuretic peptides --- natriuretic peptide --- cardiorenal syndrome --- vasopressor --- vasodilator --- kidney --- medulla --- renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system --- Atrial Natriuretic peptide --- natriuretic peptides --- cardiac remodelling --- cardiac hypertrophy --- vascular homeostasis --- atrial natriuretic peptide --- guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A --- gene-knockout --- gene-duplication --- hypertension --- congestive heart failure --- natriuretic peptides --- arterial hypertension --- pulmonary arterial hypertension --- heart failure --- stroke --- atrial fibrillation --- ARNi --- MANP

Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes

Author:
ISBN: 9783039217045 / 9783039217052 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-705-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The prevalence of diabetes is on the increase in the UK and worldwide, partly due to changes in lifestyle which predispose individuals to overweight and obesity. It is estimated that about 90% of the currently diagnosed adults have type 2 diabetes, and based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) report, about 422 million adults were living with diabetes in 2014 compared with 108 million in 1980; this condition caused about 1.5 million deaths in 2012. In the United States of America, it is estimated that about 30.3 million adults are living with diabetes, with a further 1.5 million new diabetes cases diagnosed every year, representing an increasing prevalence of this condition. Diabetes represents a major public health challenge, despite advances in technology and the pharmaceutical industry. These problems may be in the form of acute or long-term complications. Therefore, in order to attenuate the problems of diabetes, management strategies usually include lifestyle changes such as increased physical activity and dietary interventions. Studies which evaluate the role of nutrition in the management of type 2 diabetes often involve human and animal models as these approaches enable us to have a broader and more in-depth understanding of the condition. In some cases, diabetes may co-exist with other conditions, such as stroke, and these may present unique challenges with regard to nutritional interventions. This Special Issue aims to evaluate the risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and the role of the diet in the management of people with this condition. This evidence is drawn from both human and animal studies.

Keywords

aronia --- ginseng --- mushroom --- pancreatectomy --- type 2 diabetes --- gut microbiome --- insulin secretion --- energy restricted diet --- low energy diet --- carbohydrate restricted diet --- low carbohydrate diet --- diabetes --- Japanese --- tempeh --- lactic acid bacteria --- short chain fatty acids --- metabolic syndrome --- high fat diet --- feces --- type 2 diabetes mellitus --- peanut --- almond --- glycemic control --- body mass index --- lipids --- interleukin-6 --- muscle --- insulin resistance --- free fatty acids (FFA) --- diabetes --- rosemary extract --- AMPK --- prediabetes --- type 2 diabetes --- total body fat --- total body lean --- appendicular fat --- appendicular lean --- body composition --- cohort study --- micronutrients --- trace elements --- food --- glycated hemoglobin A --- hyperglycemia --- dietary pattern --- triglyceride --- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol --- type 2 diabetes --- type 2 diabetes mellitus --- nutrition --- DASH --- diet quality --- diabetes management --- dietary intake --- longitudinal analysis --- lifestyle management --- carbohydrate counting --- protein and fat counting --- insulin dosage --- glucose monitoring --- diabetes mellitus --- type 1 diabetes --- type 2 diabetes --- Hedychium coronarium --- type 2 diabetes --- aldosterone --- streptozotocin --- metabolic syndrome --- folk medicine --- calcium intake --- dairy products --- vitamin D --- type 2 diabetes --- diabetes --- diabetes reversal --- bariatric surgery --- very-low-calorie --- low-carbohydrate --- zinc intake --- zinc status --- trace elements --- type 2 diabetes mellitus --- systematic review --- meta-analysis --- epidemiology --- PUFA --- polyunsaturated fatty acids --- glycemic control --- nuts --- fish --- fish oil --- vegetable oil --- type 2 diabetes --- vitamin D deficiency --- 25-OH-D --- women --- cardiovascular risk factors --- T2DM --- obesity --- glycaemic index --- incretins --- subjective appetite --- isomaltulose --- sucromalt --- nutritional supplement --- type 2 diabetes --- gestational diabetes --- glycemic index --- randomised controlled trial --- lipid profile --- inflammatory parameters --- diabetes specific formula --- standard formula --- type 2 diabetes --- enteral nutrition --- enteral tube feeding --- lipids --- fasting blood glucose --- glycated haemoglobin --- type 2 diabetes --- dietary intake --- glycaemic control --- dietary management approaches --- micronutrients --- macronutrients --- nutrition --- chronic conditions --- lipid parameters

Listing 1 - 3 of 3
Sort by
Narrow your search
-->