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Die Alpen im Frühmittelalter

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ISBN: 9783205787693 Year: Pages: 423 DOI: 10.26530/oapen_437227 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4287
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:50:01
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This book follows a new path of describing the Alps from the years 500 to 800. Instead of running through this mountain range from east to west (or reverse) and writing one local history after the other, relevant patterns were captured: patterns of control, borders, communication routes, Christendom, settlement, economy, local methods to establish power and traces of local identity. Comparing theses structures on an interregional level made it possible to establish a new view on the early medieval alpine regions. By the year 500 the inhabitants of this central European mountain range were typically roman-provincial. Some regional differences existed, yet the main factors were quite similar: language, laws, religion (Christendom) and social structures. From the 6th c. on this changed. New political developments made a large part of the alpine provinces turn northwards to the Frankish realms. As a consequence borders were created within the Alps. Many hilltop settlements and strongholds in the valleys were built to guarantee the security both of population and borders. Militia was installed to control these boundaries; they were either recruited from the local population or got especially settled for these means. This change of view made some Roman topoi disappear: the Alps were no longer regarded as hostile and as the walls of Italy. The routes through the Alps changed. One reason for this was the growing number of pilgrims from the British Isles made the passage through Maurienne and over the Mont Cenis more important than the ancient route via Montgenèvre. The central Alps in Curia remained a highly important point to cross the mountains, whereas more eastwards the once important crossing points became mere backroads. Farther east the Avarian-Slavic conquest caused the sources to silence, nevertheless the communication routes remained visible through archaeological findings and place names. A big change for the alpine population was the transformations in settlement patterns, first of all the diminishing importance of Roman cities. Some of them disappeared completely, such as Teurnia, Aguntum and Octodurum. Nevertheless, the wider settlement areas around these former towns always remained important. New centres emerged. Some had roman roots, for example Iuvavum/Salzburg, others were new foundations, like the numerous cloisters from the 8th c. The church played a significant role in this transformation, as a bishop's see or the burial church of a saint constituted a point of attraction for the local population. The antique transalpine and alpine networks of trade underwent some transitions. Goods like olive oil, high quality pottery and sea salt were no longer brought over the Alps. The eastern alpine ore deposits were not exploited on a grand scale anymore. New natural resources became important, for example the salt deposits in the northern Alps. There are some traces of exported products. The vineyards of the Southern Alps produced vine for export to the north-alpine regions and the central alpine soapstone production supplied the population of the whole mountain range with high quality cookware. In addition to this, products like cheese, wool, honey and lumber might have been exported. Alpine agriculture did not change much. Farming was based on subsistence and the surplus was sold locally to travellers or given to the owners of the land. The use of alpine pastures roots in pre-roman times and was practised continually, although the intensity of the pastoralism is difficult to estimate. Local power structures emerged out of late antique roots. In the 8th and beginning of the 9th c. the population of these parts of the Alps still spoke a roman language, were Christian and lived in a very differentiated social structure whose legal habits were based on roman law. Contrary to that, the eastern Alps saw a major cultural shift that resulted in the Slavic reign of Carantania.

Alpine and Polar Treelines in a Changing Environment

Author:
ISBN: 9783039286300 / 9783039286317 Year: Pages: 268 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-631-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Concerns have been raised with respect to the state of high-altitude and high-latitude treelines, as they are anticipated to undergo considerable modifications due to global changes, and especially due to climate warming. As high-elevation treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries, they are considered to be sensitive to climate warming. As a consequence, in this future, warmer environment, an upward migration of treelines is expected because low air and root-zone temperatures constrain their regeneration and growth. Despite the ubiquity of climate warming, treeline advancement is not a worldwide phenomenon: some treelines have been advancing rapidly, others have responded sluggishly or have remained stable. This variation in responses is attributed to the potential interaction of a continuum of site-related factors that may lead to the occurrence of locally conditioned temperature patterns. Competition amongst species and below-ground resources have been suggested as additional factors explaining the variability in the movement of treelines. This Special Issue (book) is dedicated to the discussion of treeline responses to changing environmental conditions in different areas around the globe.

Keywords

Changbai Mountain --- Erman’s birch --- microsite --- alpine treeline --- non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) --- treeline --- climate change --- ecosystem manipulation --- space-for-time substitution --- long-term trends --- Central Austrian Alps --- 15N natural abundance --- nitrogen cycling --- treeline --- shrubline --- altitude --- light quantity --- light quality --- spectrometer --- shoot elongation --- tree seedlings --- forest climatology --- Switzerland --- temperature --- relative air humidity --- thermal continentality --- foehn winds --- expert elicitation --- knowledge engineering --- apical control --- multi-stemmed growth form --- Pinus cembra --- treeline --- climate change --- experimental rain exclusion --- plant water availability --- soil drought --- treeline --- sap flow --- Picea abies --- Larix decidua --- drought --- Mediterranean climate --- photoinhibition --- photosynthetic pigments --- tocopherol --- climate change --- climate zone --- environmental stress --- forest edge --- precipitation --- tree regeneration --- tree seedling recruitment --- upward advance --- alpine timberline --- conifer shrub --- pit aspiration --- refilling --- winter stress --- xylem embolism --- tree line --- sub-Antarctic --- westerly winds --- postglacial --- Holocene --- Southern Ocean --- climate change --- palynology --- cloud --- peat --- dendroclimatology --- elevational gradients --- drought --- western Montana --- Rocky Mountains --- treeline --- climate change --- fungal ecology --- diversity --- monitoring --- NDVI --- permafrost --- remote sensing data --- history of treeline research --- elevational treeline --- polar treeline --- treeline dynamics --- timberline --- higher altitude --- chlorophyll --- carotenoids --- climate change --- Pinus sibirica --- Abies sibirica --- elevational transect --- basal area increment --- climate warming --- conifers --- European Alps --- growth trend --- n/a

Natural Stone and Architectural Heritage

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039215508 9783039215515 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-551-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This book is made up of contributions dealing with heritage stones from different countries around the world. The stones are described, as well as their use in vernacular and contemporaneous architecture. Heritage stones are those stones that have special significance in human culture. Examples include some very important stones that have been either neglected because they are no longer extracted, or stones that have great significance in commercial terms but knowledge of their national and/or international heritage has not been well documented. In this collection of articles, we have tried to spread awareness of architectural heritage around the world, the natural stones that have been used in its construction, and the need to preserve historical quarries that once provided the source of such stones. Historical quarries are linked to regional culture and tradition. Because of the specific technical and aesthetical characteristics of heritage stones, which have lasted for centuries, these historical quarries should be preserved to be able to use the stones for the proper restoration of monuments and historical buildings to avoid negative actions that can be observed in many places in the restoration of buildings, which are some times part of World Heritage sites. The final intention of this book is to continuosly grow the interest on this fascinating subject of heritage stones.

Keywords

Gyeongju Historic Areas --- 2016 Gyeongju Earthquake --- site characterisation --- site-specific ground response analysis --- stone architectural heritage --- dynamic centrifuge test --- Cheomseongdae --- ancient seismic design technique --- serpentinites --- rocks characterization --- dimension stone --- architectural heritage --- pyroclastic rock --- dimension stone --- Sardinia --- geoheritage --- market --- houses based on natural stone --- architectural heritage --- the bay of Kotor --- UNESCO cultural heritage --- Studenica --- Sopo?ani --- marble deposits --- quarry characterisation --- restoration --- sustainability --- management --- cultural heritage conservation --- sustainability --- architectural conservation --- stone architecture heritage --- modern principles of double-layered ventilated roofs --- conservation requirements --- UNESCO World Heritage List --- marble --- wettability properties --- hydrophobicity --- laser surface texturing --- multiscale roughness --- cultural heritage --- ultrafast pulse laser --- dolostone --- quarries --- Coimbra Formation --- heritage --- Chianocco marble --- heritage stone --- archaeometry --- Western Alps --- isotopic analysis --- SEM-EDS --- heritage stone --- quartzite --- Bargiolina --- quarries --- dimension stone --- kaolin --- industrial minerals --- natural stone --- fracturing pattern --- quarrying --- geoheritage --- Unesco World Heritage Site --- building stones --- Guadeloupe --- Martinique --- French West Indies --- eastern Caribbean --- cultural heritage --- geological heritage --- historical and Archaeological sites --- Candoglia marble --- Duomo di Milano --- petrographic analysis --- geoheritage --- cultural stone

Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Gems

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280766 9783039280773 Year: Pages: 528 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-077-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Gems have been used in the manufacture of jewellery and as ornaments since antiquity. Considering gems, recent statistics have shown that about 15 billion Euros are annually at stake. Nowadays, gemmology, i.e., the study of gem materials, is one of the most expanding fields in the earth sciences, positioned between academia and industry. As an applied science, in gemmology, the instruments used should be non- or microdestructive, and their cost should be reasonable both in terms of equipment and time consumption. Gemmology can also be used contribute to the development of pure science and in some cases, destructive techniques may have to be used. Taking into account the fact that gems are albeit rarely available for scientific research, this compilation of 20 articles by around 100 researchers from over 30 different institutions situated in 20 countries from around the globe, presented in the Special Issue entitled “Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Gems”, offers very good examples on the application of various methods for their study which will hopefully contribute to our better understanding of gem formation in general and will enhance scientific debates attracting more scientists from various disciplines to get involved in this field.

Keywords

danburite --- trace elements --- REE --- femtosecond LA-ICP-MS --- CHNS elemental analyzer --- pegmatites --- skarn --- gemstones --- placer --- heavy and light minerals --- landforms --- climate --- geodynamic setting --- green quartz --- prase --- amethyst --- color --- amphibole --- actinolite --- skarn --- Serifos --- Greece --- zircon --- xenocryst --- alkali basalt --- Ratanakiri Volcanic Province --- trace elements --- O-isotopes and Hf-isotopes --- U-Pb --- (U-Th)/He --- granitic pegmatite --- gem-quality tourmaline --- Adamello Massif --- Central Alps --- Italy --- ruby --- Mogok --- Mong Hsu --- New South Wales --- trace elements --- LA-ICP-MS analysis --- inclusions --- U–Pb age-dating --- genetic diversity --- geographic typing --- corundum --- blue sapphire --- meta-ultramafic rocks --- LA-ICP-MS --- Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopy --- Ilmenogorsky complex --- Ural Mountains --- metasomatism --- corundum megacrysts --- ruby --- sapphire --- plumasite --- metamorphic-metasomatic origin --- Greece --- zircon megacrysts --- placer deposits --- rare earth elements (REE) --- carbonatite-dominant melts --- Central Highlands --- Vietnam --- hyperspectral photoluminescence imaging --- LA-ICP-MS --- rubies --- corundum --- in-situ oxygen isotopes --- Paranesti Greece --- Nestos Shear Zone --- Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) --- emerald deposits --- classification --- typology --- metamorphism --- magmatism --- sedimentary --- alkaline metasomatism --- fluids --- stable and radiogenic isotopes --- genetic models --- exploration --- andradite --- demantoid --- gemstone --- Raman spectroscopy --- UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy --- X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy --- gem-quality --- garnet --- gem-bearing pegmatite --- fluid inclusions --- P-T-X equilibria --- spodumene --- Ar/Ar dating --- blue sapphire --- anorthosites --- kyshtymites --- sapphire geochemistry --- Ilmenogorsky-Vishnevogorsky complex --- in situ LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating --- kyanite --- Mn-rich silicates --- Rhodope --- Thassos --- amphibolite facies --- metasomatism --- opal --- hyalite --- silica --- X-ray diffraction --- Raman --- Infrared --- 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance --- SEM --- provenance --- pearls --- freshwater --- saltwater --- LA-ICP-MS --- X-ray luminescence --- sapphires --- corundum --- in situ oxygen isotopes --- Orosmayo Argentina --- lamprophyre --- secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) --- carbonatite --- gemstones --- corundum --- beryl --- jadeitite --- garnet --- quartz varieties --- Greece --- emeralds --- LA-ICP-MS --- UV-Vis-NIR --- FTIR --- Raman --- PL --- n/a

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