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Universities in Imperial Austria 1848–1918

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Book Series: Central European Studies ISBN: 9781557538376 9781557538611 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Purdue University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102990
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-03 11:21:04
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"Combining history of science and a history of universities with the new imperial history, Universities in Imperial Austria 1848–1918: A Social History of a Multilingual Space by Jan Surman analyzes the practice of scholarly migration and its lasting influence on the intellectual output in the Austrian part of the Habsburg Empire.The Habsburg Empire and its successor states were home to developments that shaped Central Europe's scholarship well into the twentieth century. Universities became centers of both state- and nation-building, as well as of confessional resistance, placing scholars if not in conflict, then certainly at odds with the neutral international orientation of academe.

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History --- Austria

Die Allegorie der Austria

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ISBN: 9783205775805 Year: Pages: 285 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437140 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3801
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:48:39
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The intention of this paper is to give a correct inside in the review of the discussed periods. It tries to achieve this by using the means of Art History and Political History to get an exact inside. The allegorical representation of the Austria in this case is the means to get it. It stands for the specific aspects of the time, so for instance the dynastic Austria with the crown of Emperor Rudolph II. meaning the predominance of the ruling Habsburgs, the civic Austria with the mural crown showing the ideas of the middle class, especially in the German speaking parts of the country, with the acceptance of the predominance of the state over the ruler, according to Hegel, or also the victorious Austria with the laurel wreath as a symbol of the conquest of the revolution of 1848. The Habsburg monarchy including many different nations was the proper breeding ground of dissatisfaction and diversified nationalistic ideas. So the representation of the Austria is an important means of showing these ideas. The periods the paper is working on are roughly speaking starting with the time of the beginning of the position of the monarchy as one of the ruling powers of Europe until her dissolution and the end of World War I. Different aspects of art history are also dealt with. So for example the 13 portraits of Habsburg rulers in the Museum Nordico at Linz, which are positioned in the time of Rudolph II. and mark the beginning of the representation of the allegory of the Austria, or the designs for monuments by Otto Wagner which are dealt with in the many books on this architect only as a side issue, whereas they are a very important part of wagners work and show his national feelings, towards his fatherland. It is furthermore interesting to look at the nationalistic problems shown in this paper and compare them with contemporary Europe and the overcoming of them. These ideas are not new, the date back to the 19th and especially the beginning of the 20th century when the Monarchy tried to overcome the problems with the slogan of Großösterreich (Greater Austria). During World War one followed the idea of Mitteleuropa (Central Europe) including Turkey and the institution of a Polish State to hold off revolutionary Russia

Österreich im KSZE-Prozess 1969-1983. Neutraler Vermittler in humanitärer Mission

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Book Series: Quellen und Darstellungen zur Zeitgeschichte ISSN: 2190-1317 ISBN: 9783486719307 Year: Volume: 98 Pages: 476 DOI: 10.1524/9783486719307 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: History --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-02 14:22:30
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Austria was active in the CSCE (Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe) negotiations, primarily in the contentious areas of humanitarian issues and human rights. Despite consistent claims of neutrality, Vienna supported the Western position on all important questions. Benjamin Gilde's broadly researched study offers major insight into the history of the humanitarian aspect of the CSCE.

Keywords

CSCE --- Austria --- human rights

Literatur in Österreich 1938-1945, Steiermark

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783205778097 Year: Pages: 376 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437159 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3972
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:48:57
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The manuscript is the first volume of an encyclopedic reference work that, as the result of basic research in literary studies, represents the first systematic attempt to provide comprehensive documentation of the literary events that took place within the official system of the Third Reich as promoted, or at least tolerated, by the decision-makers in the cultural industry more accessible, without resorting to limiting, biased attempts to define a canon. Materials will be presented for the analysis and interpretation of genesis and effects of these events and institutions. For this reason, the study is based on a functional understanding of literature and has taken key institutional elements of the literary communication system into consideration: authors and their works (including radio and film writers), scholars of German studies, the decision-makers of cultural policy (promotion/censure, literary awards), literary associations, publishing houses and theaters, anthologies and periodicals. The total control of all public creative and media activities in the year 1938 through the Third Reich dictatorship rarely provides good sources for the testing of this method. Our systematic research of the phase between 1938 and 1945 intends to create the most comprehensive description possible of the institutions within the literary system and the integration of authors. Apart from printed material in files pertaining to individuals, we primarily scrutinized the contents of the National Archive Berlin / Division on National Socialism (BDC) and what is known as the Gauakten or District Files for this purpose (the vast majority of personal information related to authors was provided by the authors themselves). The most important archival basis for the description of the institutions are files from the National Archive Koblenz (now in the National Archive Berlin) and the Municipal and Provincial Archives of Vienna.In the survey of material, some of the events that transpired before and after the critical Nazi years were systematically included in order to draw attention to continuities and breaks. Especially significant were literary awards and honors, which illustrate the integration of writers in the various governments from the monarchy up through the Second Republic. For this reason, we have included all such prizes that are known. The first attempt to list all literary organizations in Austria and all German-language anthologies, in which Austria texts were included, covers the period between 1933 and 1945. The subsequent period has been documented not only through literary awards and honors, but also through the inclusion of the so-called "Gauakten" in the Austrian National Archive (Österreichisches Staatsarchiv / Archiv der Republik).In order to explore the institutional factors of the literary sub-system in German-speaking regions, a new kind of handbook was created in accordance with this methodological approach, a combination of encyclopedia of persons and specialized dictionary, which should be combined in a network to form a whole. Another factor that led to this format was the division of Austria by the Nazis into seven divisions subject directly to the German government. The handbooks have thus been structured as follows: Part I: Encyclopedia of Persons is divided into several volumes based on the administrative divisions (Gaue) at the time. The first volume will focus on Styria. The alphabetically-ordered author will be preceded by a literary and historical introduction and an organizational diagram of the literary-political associations of the individual divisions as well as an overview of institutions in the Gau. A list of abbrevations and a list of sources will be included at the end of each volume. The volumes devoted to individual authors will be cross-referenced with the second part.Part II: Institutions in Austria will focus on literary organizations, German studies / folk culture, literary awards, promotion and c

Sportdiktatur

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ISBN: 9783851325157 Year: Pages: 719 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_574814 Language: German
Publisher: Turia und Kant Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3955
Added to DOAB on : 2015-09-08 11:01:20
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The intention of the book is to reduce the enormous Austrian research deficiency concerning the reappraisal of the sporting life during the NS-era. Therefore it will depict all sportive areas on the "Austrian" territory between March 1938 and April 1945, including top sports and sports for all, mass and monority sports, sports in clubs, youth sports and also sports practices of the formations of the NSDAP. Due to the enormous quantity of material, this overview will be contrasted by a precise analysis of three specific periods: the months after the "Anschluss", the autumn 1939 and the period after Stalingrad.It can be shown, that and how the regime dictated the basic conditions of sports, but there can also be found some grey area, in which those who were involved found resp. created freedom by strategies of mutual adaption. This freedom was used by different groups in specific ways: by the regime to calm down the working class or to soothe anti-prussian resentments, by the athletes to get some privileges and by the spectators to keep a glimpse of good luck. Not instrumentalization defined sports, but a negotiation of interests.It is just gaze on the everyday life of sports and the inherent permanent negotioations between regime and the people, that refer to the book´s contribution to the long term discussion on national socialism, which exceeds the field of sports: The political and cultural system of the Nazi-era could not be understood by looking at power, competences or possibilities of the regime in comparison with the people´s experiences and feelings of subjection, from which historical sciences construct the image of an interlude, which cannot be included in the evolutionary development of modernity.Looking on sports not only claryfies, to which extent cultural traditions led on and how "normality" was kept alive, but shows, in which ways changes and new valuations were obviously shared and use by the people. This concerned changing definitions of the sense of community, of gender, youth, work and performance. The special importance of sports can be found in substantiating these articulations by giving them authenticity and tracing them back to the nature of men.The analysis of sporting life in the NS-era may serve as an cause for questioning the contemporarygaze on the Nazi state. For all people, who were allowed to be included, life in national socialism offered - in spite of holocaust and World War - supply of a pleasant, self-detemined and enjoyable livehood. Who leaves aside or overlooks this facet of the Nazi dictatorship, will not be able to understand the acceptance and fascination of the regime and evoke just this often senseless metaphors of refusal, which mostly shape actual discourses.

Literatur in Österreich 1938-1945, Oberösterreich

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783205795087 Year: Pages: 482 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_482373 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 110
Added to DOAB on : 2014-12-04 09:02:26
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Dictionary of a province during the National Socialist era (“Oberdonau”), understood as a regional literary subsystem described in terms of the interaction of authors and literary institutions

Die Südbahn

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ISBN: 9783205774044 Year: Pages: 413 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437160 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3680
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:48:58
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The present manuscript is intended to be part I of a publication in two volumes, which deals with the historic architecture in the region of "Semmering" in southern Lower Austria from the point of view of art history, cultural history and history of architecture. The study was attempted in continuation of the FWF-project P 13959 under scientifical direction and supervision of the applicant (Prof.Dr. Mario Schwarz). Main topic of this study is the role and importance of the "Suedbahngesellschaft" (Southern Railway Company) in the process of the formation of the Semmering-region as a first-rate holiday resort of the Viennese society during the late 19th century up to the beginning of World War I. The study shows that the forming of this region mainly depended on the initiative of Friedrich Schueler, the Southern Railways Company's director, and Franz Schoenthaler, sculptor in duty of the Imperial Court. The materialization of the planning in the field of hotel-architecture in the first phase was due to architect Franz Wilhelm - collaborator of Wilhelm Flattich, who designed the railway-station of the Southern Railway Company at Vienna, in the second phase due to the architects Alfred Wildhack and Robert v. Morpurgo. The author's research brought a lot of new insight in work and biographies of these architects, who have been neglected so far by the art history. New, important results were achieved by this study concerning the links between the Semmering hotel-architecture and the grand hotel-resorts at Dobiacco (Toblach; architect: Wilhelm Flattich) and Opatija (Abbazia; architect: Alfred Wildhack e.a.), built by the Southern Railway Company as well, which have to be seen as activities in sense of the company's "corporate identity". Thus the company appears among the leading entrepreneurs in the world as founder of railway-hotels. The author presents several famous examples of this kind of hotels from Great Britain to the USA. Here the study is entering a field of architectural research, which still stands at the beginning. There are also important relations between the Semmering hotel-architecture and the historical hotels of Switzerland. In a large panorama the author includes the Semmering hotels in the general regional development of the "Wiener Hausberge" (hills and mountains near Vienna) during the second half of 19th century, especially in the time after the construction of the Semmering railway. The study comprehensively is illustrated with photographs of the object's exteriors and the interiors, historic views, plans and comparative illustrations.At the beginning of this volume, an introductory chapter, written by the applicant (Prof.Dr.Mario Schwarz), refers on new studies to the phenomenon of landscape aesthetification in view of the construction of the Semmering railway. The main topic is the factor of sensual apperception of the landscape during the continuous movement of a railway-ride and its genial exploitation by the railway's architects. This motivation has to be seen as climax and terminus of a development, which derived from the ideology of English landscape gardening in the age of romanticism. On the other hand the phenomenon is compared with the theories of aestheticism, as they were discussed at the Vienna university in the middle of l9th century.

Zwischen Krieg und Euthanasie

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ISBN: 9783205783213 Year: Pages: 342 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437180 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4079
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:49:19
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This publication describes in detail the preparation and realization of the forcibly sterilization of numerous women and men Vienna from 1940 to 1945. These forced sterilizations of individuals, being categorized as 'hereditary ill', were based on the 'Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring' (GzVeN). In Nazi Germany it took effect in January 1934, and until the outbreak of the war, when most of the court-proceedings had already ended, 300.000 women and men, had been forcibly sterilized. In January 1940 the law was implemented in the 'Ostmark', and at least 6.000 women and men had been forcibly sterilized during the war. In Vienna, the then second-largest city of the 'German Reich' 1.203 court-decisions in favour of a forcibly sterilization could be traced-back. These court-files of the 'Viennese Hereditary Health Court' (Erbgesundheitsgericht) became accessible for research only recently. The quantitative and qualitative analysis indicates three parameters for the implementation of the GzVeN in Vienna: First of all, the reduction of lawsuits to 'urgent' cases, i.e. persons of a 'particularly great danger of procreation'; secondly, the personal and structural restrictions resulting from war; and thirdly, the Nazi Euthanasia: Different from Nazi Germany the forced sterilizations had not been preceding the murder of disabled persons, but were rather implemented in the same period of time. Several doctors in Vienna were responsible for both, forced sterilizations and murder.Both judges and doctors of the 'Viennese Hereditary Health Court' were keen to contribute to the radical efforts to create the visional 'healthy national body' by fulfilling the GzVeN independent of the above mentioned parameters: they implemented a National Socialist tort-law, which included a surgical intervention with severe and lifelong psychical and physical consequences - against the will of the people who were affected. After the end of the war, the judges and doctors did not have to take any kind of responsibility for their decisions to sterilize people forcibly. This was not surprising, taking into account that the categorization of persons due to their 'value of hereditage' ('Erbwert') continued: Firstly, the then-chancellor Renner announced to pass a similar law when the GzVeN was repealed in Mai 1945; secondly, the forcibly sterilized women and men were partly acknowledged only in 1995 as victims of Nazi-persecution and fully acknowledged only 2005; and thirdly, until to the present, women, being categorized as 'disabled', are still sterilized without their knowledge and therefore without their consent. However, this bodily injury does not carry a penalty, since there is no contradiction to the so called 'good manners' ('gute Sitten'), incorporated in the criminal law.

4 Kruder and Dorfmeister (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9781138713918 9781315230627 Year: Pages: 20 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Arts in general
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:14
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When Cruise , the film whose dialogue I used as an epigraph for this chapter, was&#xD;released in 1970, these words were seen as capturing Polish inability to move&#xD;beyond the safe zone of a well-known repertoire of images, melodies and symbols.&#xD;Austrians allegedly are also stuck in the past (see Chapter 1 ). This would&#xD;explain Kruder and Dorfmeister’s penchant for making capital from our pleasure&#xD;of listening to melodies we already know, if not for the fact that they gained fame&#xD;not from capitalising on Vienna’s music history but remixing songs coming from&#xD;the Anglo-American centre of popular music, such as those by Depeche Mode,&#xD;Madonna and David Holmes. Theirs is thus an interesting case of colonisation,&#xD;which includes self-colonisation and reverse colonisation: taking something from&#xD;the centre, reworking it and returning to the centre an improved version. Depending&#xD;on the perspective, their productions can be seen as proof of the hegemony of&#xD;the centre or a sign that the periphery can not only resist the centre’s power but&#xD;also penetrate it on its own terms. Equally, they can be seen as a sign of the end of&#xD;authenticity and originality in popular music (and art at large) in the postmodern&#xD;era or a need to rework these concepts to fit the art of creative recycling.&#xD;

8 Peter Rehberg, Christian Fennesz and the Label Mego (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9781138713918 9781315230627 Year: Pages: 29 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Arts in general
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:15
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A large proportion of artists considered in this study at some stage of their career&#xD;veered towards ‘serious’ or experimental music. This also refers to Peter Rehberg&#xD;and Christian Fennesz. However, they differ from those considered previously,&#xD;because unlike them, they did not cross the boundary between the popular and&#xD;academic now and then but made it their personal signature. Their music also&#xD;challenges our concept of electronic music, as well as studio and stage and even&#xD;music and non-music. To contextualise their work, it is worth locating it first&#xD;against the concept of ‘noise music’ or rather ‘noise as music’.

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