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Investigating the human brainstem with structural and functional MRI

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192472 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-247-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The brainstem is one of the least understood parts of the human brain despite its prime importance for the maintenance of basic vital functions. Owing to its role as a relay station between spinal cord, cerebellum and neocortex, the brainstem contains vital nodes of all functional systems in the central nervous system, including the visual, auditory, gustatory, vestibular, somatic and visceral senses, and the somatomotor as well as autonomic nervous systems. While the brainstem has been extensively studied in animals using invasive methods, human studies remain scarce. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive and widely available method is one possibility to access the brainstem in humans and measure its structure as well as function. The close vicinity of the brainstem to large arteries and ventricles and the small size of the anatomical structures, however, place high demands on imaging as well as data analysis methods. Nevertheless, the field of brainstem-(f)MRI has significantly advanced in the past few years, largely due to the development of several new tools that facilitate studying this critical part of the human brain. Within this scope, the goal of this Research Topic is to compile work representing the state of the art in functional and structural MRI of the human brainstem.

Dysregulation of Autonomic Cardiac Control by Traumatic Stress and Anxiety

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199150 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-915-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Current understanding of the interplay between sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on cardiac response to environmental stimuli and subsequent response selection (e.g. maintenance of resting homeostasis, mobilization of defensive response, task performance, tonic immobilization, and/or affiliation) will be explored. Reference will be made to how these processes conjoin with proposed polyvagal theory. Cardiac adjustments to environmental stimuli affect the internal physiological state of the organism as well as the quality of information processing that the individual can perform during the stimulus appraisal stage of the orienting response. Bradyrdia is adaptive in early stages of orientation to novel or potential threat, while greater HRV power serves to facilitate self-regulation, stimulus information processing and appraisal, and appropriate response selection. This issue is devoted to current research findings on how normal patterns of cardiac autonomic regulation of HRV are disrupted in PTSD, impairing sustained attention to the environment and increasing the rate of inappropriate responding to stimuli. Origins of our current state of understanding in the ‘intake-rejection’ hypothesis will be considered, and how the intake-rejection hypothesis has morphed into present-day Optimal Performance practice. Additionally, empirical data where available will be presented on how dysregulation of the normal pattern of cardiac autonomic regulation by PTSD impairs sustained attention to the environment, and increases the rate of inappropriate responding to stimuli through disinhibition, poor impulse control, emotional withdrawal, over-arousal, and attentional bias. Current research findings are sought that address in controlled, experimental and clinical trials the restorative effects of HRV biofeedback on HRV power, and how increases in HRV power relate to improved attention / immediate memory and self-regulation of affect using outcome measures of cognition, symptoms of PTSD and depression, stress perception, and level of adaptive function.

Celebrating Twenty Years of the Brazilian Symposium on Cardiovascular Physiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451760 Year: Pages: 241 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-176-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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This e-book is dedicated to the celebration of 20 years of the Brazilian Symposium on Cardiovascular Physiology. In 1996 groups from the School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (FMRP-USP) and from the Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) joined together to discuss cardiovascular physiology. In subsequent editions of the meeting, the participation of other groups from all over the country has grown and acquired the status of a national symposium. The participants now agree that the symposium should be itinerant and that the chair group is responsible for its organization. In 2016, we proudly reached the 20th edition of the Brazilian Symposium on Cardiovascular Physiology. It is certainly a memorable date and a great opportunity to share the accomplishments of Brazilian groups in the field of cardiovascular physiology.

Bridging the gap before and after birth: Methods and technologies to explore the functional neural development in humans

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196876 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-687-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Infant brain damage is a serious condition that affects millions of babies each year. The period from late gestation to the first year of life is the most critical one for the development of central and autonomous nervous systems. Medical conditions such as preterm birth may compromise brain function and the end result usually is that the baby may experience long-term neurological problems related to a wide range of psychological, physical and functional complications, with consequent life-long burdens for the individuals and their families, and a high socio-economic impact for the health care system and the whole of society. During the last years, several techniques have been employed to monitor the brain functional development in utero and after birth. As well, various analytical methods have been used to understand the functional maturation of the brain and the autonomous nervous system. However, in spite of the rapid improvement of diagnostic methods and procedures, there is still a widely recognized, severe shortage of clinically viable means for the high quality monitoring of the brain function in early life with a direct relevance to acute neurological illness and future neurocognitive outcomes. The studies collected in this e-book document the most recent advancements in monitoring systems, analytical methods and clinical diagnostic procedures that contribute to increase our knowledge of the functional development of the human brain and autonomous nervous system during pregnancy and after birth, with the ultimate goal of reducing fetal impairment and improving healthcare in the neonatal and infant period.

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