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B-Vitamins and One-Carbon Metabolism

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ISBN: 9783038429739 9783038429746 Year: Pages: XII, 390 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-26 13:22:55
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Folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and riboflavin play a key role as coenzymes in one-carbon metabolism which, in turn, is essential for a broad range of fundamental physiological processes, including RNA and DNA synthesis, cell division, tissue growth and methylation. Deficiencies or imbalance of B-vitamins, as well as genetic polymorphisms and environmental factors, are shown to disturb the normal function of one-carbon metabolism with adverse effects on human health. Although a vast volume of research has already been conducted in this area, there are still significant gaps in our knowledge that require further investigations. This Special Issue of Nutrients invited submission of manuscripts, original research or reviews of the scientific literature, focused on novel findings in relation to B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolism in terms of: metabolic roles and molecular mechanisms; gene–nutrient interactions; fetal growth and programing; risk of disease (birth defects and pregnancy related conditions, cancer, cardiovascular disease and hypertension, neuropsychiatric disease, osteoporosis); health effects of B-vitamin supplementation and food fortification.

Métodos de Bézier y B-splines

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ISBN: 3937300473 Year: Pages: XVI, 303 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000002481 Language: SPANISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59

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Este libro provee una base sólida para la teoría de curvas de Bézier y B-spline, revelando su elegante estructura matemática. En el texto se hace énfasis en las nociones centrales del Diseño Geométrico Asistido por Computadora con la intención de dar un tratamiento analíticamente claro y geométricamente intuitivo de los principios básicos del área. También contiene material avanzado incluyendo splines multivariados, técnicas de subdivisión y la construcción a mano alzada de superficies con cualquier grado de suavidad. El libro está excelentemente bien ilustrado con diagramas y figuras que aluden directamente al material que se desarrolla en el texto y complementan su carácter constructivo.This book provides a solid and uniform derivation of the various properties Bezier and B-spline representations have, and shows the beauty of this underlying rich mathematical structure. The book focuses on the core concepts of Computer Aided Geometric design with the intention to give a clear and illustrative presentation of the basic principles, as well as a treatment of advanced material including multivariate splines, some subdivision techniques and constructions of free form surfaces with arbitrary smoothness. The text is beautifully illustrated with many excellent fiugres to emphasize the geometric constructive approach of this book.In diesem Buch werden die grundlegenden Konzepte des Geometrischen Designs (CAGD) dargestellt. Die Eigenschaften von Bézier- und B-Spline Darstellungen werden mit Hilfe von Polarformen einheitlich und stringent hergeleitet. Darüber hinaus werden Konstruktionen von Freiformflächen beliebiger Glattheitsordnung, Unterteilungsalgorithmen, Boxsplines, Simplexsplines und multivariate Splines behandelt. Der Text ist mit vielen hervorragenden Abbildungen illustriert, die den geometrisch konstruktiven Zugang des Buches deutlich hervorheben.

Dreidimensionale Plattenkinematik: Strainanalyse auf B-Spline-Approximationsflächen am Beispiel der Vrancea-Zone / Rumänien

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Studiengangs Geodäsie und Geoinformatik ISSN: 16129733 ISBN: 9783866441521 Year: Volume: 2007,5 Pages: VI, 84 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000007019 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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In der Arbeit werden Verfahren und Methoden kombiniert, um eine Analyse der dreidimensionalen Plattenkinematik Rumäniens auf Basis der geschätzten Geschwindigkeiten der Stationen eines GPS-Überwachungsnetzes durchzuführen.Aus den Daten der GPS-Stationen wird mit der Multilevel B-Spline Approximation eine analytische Beschreibung der Bewegung des Untersuchungsgebietes erhalten und anschließend daraus dessen Verformungen, wie Dehnungen und Scherungen, abgeleitet.

Natural Antibodies in Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454051 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-405-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Natural antibodies (NAbs) are found in normal individuals in the absence of exogenous antigenic stimulation. Natural antibodies rapidly recognize and protect against pathogens that have not been previously encountered. NAbs also cross-react with several self-antigens, which, besides their role as a first line of defense against pathogens, affords them the ability to perform important housekeeping functions in healthy organisms. Such housekeeping functions include the clearance of oxidized damaged structures and/or apoptotic cells, which prevents the induction of pro-inflammatory effects. In addition, NAbs play a role in preventing the expansion of specific auto-reactive clones, thereby behaving as regulatory elements in acute or chronic inflammation. To maintain the non-pathogenic balance between the dual pathogen/self-antigen cross-reactivities of NAbs, a strict regulation in NAb secretion and function is necessary to avoid autoimmune disease. Actually, some of the NAbs related auto-reactivities, such as anti-DNA and anti-MOG, have been associated with autoimmunity. Furthermore, NAbs have been shown to bind to ‘neo-self’ carbohydrate antigens on glycolipids and glycoproteins found on malignant but not normal cells, which suggests NAbs may take part in tumor immunosurveillance.Many aspects regarding NAbs have yet to be studied in more detail: the reactivity and function of NAbs in health and disease, the behavior of the NAb repertoire with increasing age, the regulation of natural antibody production and auto-reactivity, the ways to specifically activate NAbs producing cells with desired specificities, the characteristics of human NAbs, among others. This special topics eBook consists of a number of articles exploring the cells that produce NAbs as well as the characteristics, function, specificity, and/or the role of natural antibodies in health and disease.

Social innovation: combining profits and progress (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9781788116848 9781788116855 Year: Pages: 17 DOI: 10.4337/9781788116855.00017 Language: English
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-14 12:53:45
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A growing number of new and established organizations are addressing social ills through innovative and profitable organization. In that regard, we seek to understand how a deeper understanding of social innovation can be achieved by a more sophisticated discussion of organizational form. In this chapter we ask, ‘Which organizational designs and practices can meet both financial and social objectives?’ and ‘How can organizations use those practices to profitably address social ills such as poverty, social inequity, climate change, and educational failure?’ This chapter draws on novel data, practitioners’ experiences, and dozens of interviews to highlight the organizational design and innovation behavior that further the profitable pursuit of social innovation. We focus on benefit corporations or B-corporations as an organizational design that simultaneously delivers business and social impact. We then identify and analyze behaviors within established companies that support social innovation. B-corporations currently exist in 50 countries. They are certified and have their social and environmental impact formally tracked and publicly reported by B-Lab. B-Lab is a non-profit organization that serves and inspires the global movement of ‘B-corporations’ with the aim of building a global community, promoting mission alignment, and helping social innovators ‘measure what matters in the business’. B-Lab’s main instrument is the B-Lab Impact Assessment, which determines the outcome of B-Lab certification. Legal benefit corporations (currently only in the US) may choose to be certified as ‘B-corporations’ as well, though there is no strict requirement to do so. Here, we report on stylized findings from the data.

Vico’s Ring. Notes on the“Scienza nuova”, its Structure, and the Hermeneutics of Homer’s Works

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Book Series: I Quaderni del LAB ISSN: 2465-1338 ISBN: 9788890871221 Year: DOI: 10.12862/Lab16Q4e Language: English
Publisher: Istituto per la storia del pensiero filosofico e scientifico moderno - National Research Council
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2016-12-22 11:25:10
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The present study of Giambattista Vico’s defining work, La Scienza nuova (The New Science) is concerned with an approach to the work that pays requisite attention not only to the content but also to its form. To that end, Horst Steinke proposes that Scienza nuova possesses the structure of a ring composition by which individual parts of the work relate to each other in complex but identifiable ways. This approach, which is developed through a discussion of all five Books that make up the work, also leads to, or implies, certain constraints on the interpretation of Vico’s thought, resulting from an interplay of form and content. Since Vico made Homer the centerpiece of his own work, Vico’s hermeneutics are discussed in the context of his underlying philosophy of language, and both are compared with Spinoza’s thought. Finally, the so-called “Homeric question”, in Vico’s view, is addressed in an original way.

Metabolism and Immune Tolerance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457250 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-725-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Historically the study of the immune system and metabolism have been two very separate fields. In recent years, a growing literature has emerged illustrating how the multiple processes of cellular metabolism are intricately linked to several aspects of immune function and development. This Research Topic covers recent progress in the field now known as “Immunometabolism” and the role of metabolism in immune tolerance. Immune tolerance is operationally defined as a state where a host’s immune system is balanced such that although self-reactive lymphocytes are present, they are kept in check by immune regulation. Perturbations to this homeostasis may result in self-reactive lymphocytes gaining the upper hand and mediating auto-immune disease. Maintenance of immune tolerance involves a large cast of different cell types including effector T cells, regulatory T cells, B cells, stromal cells, dendritic cells and macrophages.Intracellular pathways and individual enzymes of metabolism have been shown to be harnessed by cells of both the adaptive and innate immune system to allow particular immune functions to be achieved. Examples include metabolic enzymes serving ‘moonlighting’ functions in mRNA translation, gene splicing, and kinase activation. Other examples include the requirement for de novo fatty acid synthesis for differentiation into Th17 effectors and CD8 memory T cells or products of the TCA cycle promoting pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Likewise, the availability of extracellular metabolic substrates has a large impact on the maintenance of local immune tolerance. For example, there are different requirements for glucose, glutamine and fatty acids for effector versus regulatory T cell development. Also tolerogenic dendritic cells mediate lowering of extracellular essential amino acids by their enhanced catabolism, promoting the induction of regulatory T cells. The purpose of this Research Topic is to provide an update on the current understanding of the multiple roles for metabolism in regulating the immune system.

Making Science Fun - A Tribute to Our Colleague and Friend, Prof. Antonius G. Rolink (1953-2017)

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457519 Year: Pages: 211 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-751-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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This Research Topic honors the memory of Prof. Antonius “Ton” G. Rolink (April 19, 1953–August 06, 2017), our colleague, mentor and friend in immunology. It is now over a year since Ton left us. This article collection, authored by many of Ton’s friends and colleagues, reflects the huge contribution to cellular and molecular immunology that work emanating directly from Ton’s own hands and laboratory have made to the understanding of lymphocyte development. Ton’s hard work, expertise, generosity, passion for science and infectious humor were legendary and for all of those lucky enough to have been his colleague, he ensured that science was fun. We take this opportunity of thanking all contributors for submitting their manuscripts; we are sure that Ton would have enjoyed reading and making his own insightful comments on them. In the form of original research and review articles, these papers cover many of Ton’s scientific interests in different aspects of lymphocyte development in mouse and man. In the first section, Development of hematopoietic cells and lymphocytes, Klein et al. describe the accumulation of multipotent hematopoietic progenitors in peripheral lymphoid organs of IL-7xFlt3L double transgenic mice and Pang et al. the role of the transcription factor PU.1 on the development of Common Lymphoid Progenitors. In Early B cell development, Winkler and Mårtensson review the role of the Pre-B cell receptor in B cell development and papers by Hobeika et al. and Brennecke et al. describe models of inducible B cell development. For B cell selection, survival and tolerance, Smulski and Eibel review the role of BAFF and Kowalczyk-Quintans et al. analyse the role of membrane-bound BAFF. The impact of BIM on B cell homeostasis is discussed by Liu et al. The role of the MEK-ERK pathway in B cell tolerance is discussed by Greaves et al. and the transcriptional regulation of germinal center development is reviewed by Song and Matthias. For Hematological diseases, Ghia reviews how studies of B cell development help the understanding of Leukemia development, Kim and Schaniel review how iPS technology helps the understanding of hematological diseases and Hellmann et al. describe development of new therapeutic antibody drug conjugates. Finally, in T cell development, homeostasis and graft vs. host disease, Heiler et al. describe the therapeutic effects of IL-2/anti-IL-2 immune complexes in GvHD, Calvo-Asensio et al. describe the DNA damage response of thymocyte progenitors and Mori and Pieters review the role of Coronin 1 in T cell survival.

PI3K signalling

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194193 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-419-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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The PI3Ks control many key functions in immune cells. PI3Ks phosphorylate PtdIns(4,5)P2 to yield PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Initially, PI3K inhibitors such as Wortmannin, LY294002 and Rapamycin were used to establish a central role for Pi3K pathway in immune cells. Considerable progress in understanding the role of this pathway in cells of the immune system has been made in recent years, starting with analysis of various PI3K and Pten knockout mice and subsequently mTOR and Foxo knockout mice. Together, these experiments have revealed how PI3Ks control B cell and T cell development, T helper cell differentiation, regulatory T cell development and function, B cell and T cell trafficking, immunoglobulin class switching and much, much more. The PI3Kd inhibitor idelalisib has recently been approved for the treatment of B cell lymphoma. Clinical trials of other PI3K inhibitors in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases are also in progress. This is an opportune time to consider a Research Topic considering when what we have learned about the PI3K signalling module in lymphocyte biology and how this is making an impact on clinical immunology and haematology.

Beyond the Iron Age: The ecological relevance of bioactive trace metals other than Fe and organic growth factors in aquatic systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195466 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-546-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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In the last three decades, research has extensively focused on the role of Fe and other mineral nutrients in regulating biological processes, ranging from the surface to the deep ocean. This has produced major breakthroughs in our understanding of the fundamental role of those bioactive elements on the carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycles and ecosystem function. However, biological processes cannot be entirely sustained by that small set of chemical elements, and new scientific evidence suggests that trace metals other than Fe (e.g., Co, Mo and Ni) as well as essential organic growth factors (e.g., vitamins) may also be crucial in most aquatic systems.

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