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The Origin of the Plasma Cell Heterogeneity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197347 Year: Pages: 80 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-734-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Abstract

Plasma cells (PCs) are terminally differentiated B-cells producing large amounts of immunoglobulins (Ig). In humans, most of circulating Ig are produced by bone marrow plasma cells. PCs differentiate from activated naïve or memory B-cells usually activated by specific antigens. It is still controversial whether the regulation of PCs numbers and the “active” in vivo Ig diversity depend or not on non-specific reactivation of B-cells during infections. Depending on the stimulus (T-independent/T-dependent antigen, cytokines, partner cells) and B-cell types (naïve or memory, circulating or germinal center, lymph nodes or spleen, B1 or B2...), both the phenotype and isotype of PCs differ suggesting that PC diversity is either linked to B-cell diversity or to the type of stimulus or to both. Knowledge of the mechanisms supporting PC diversity has important consequences for the management of i) plasma cell neoplasia such as Multiple Myeloma and Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia, ii) vaccine protection against pathogens and iii) auto-immune diseases.

Keywords

Plasma cell --- B-cell --- differentiation --- Cell Cycle --- IL21 --- Autophagy --- B1 --- Autoimmunity --- Myeloma

Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases

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ISBN: 9783039287048 / 9783039287055 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-705-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Mycotoxins are considered the most frequently occurring natural contaminants in human and animal diets. Considering their potential toxic and carcinogenic effects, mycotoxin exposure assessment has particular importance in the context of health risk assessment. The magnitude of a given exposure allows the derivation of the associated risk and the potential for the establishment of a disease. Although food ingestion is considered a major route of human exposure to mycotoxins, other contexts may also result in exposure, such as specific occupational environments where exposure to organic dust also occurs due to the handling of organic materials. Animals could be exposed to mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated feed, subsequently entering in the food chain and thus constituting a source of exposure to humans. Human biomonitoring is considered a new frontier for the establishment of the human internal exposure to mycotoxins. Although several studies have summarized the potential outcomes associated with mycotoxin exposure, major gaps in data remain in recognizing the mycotoxins that are the cause of diseases. This book contributes provides research that supports the anticipation of potential consequences of the exposure of humans and animals to mycotoxins, future risk assessments, and the establishment of preventive measures.

Promising Detoxification Strategies to Mitigate Mycotoxins in Food and Feed

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ISBN: 9783038970286 9783038970279 Year: Pages: 306 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-027-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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Abstract

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Promising Detoxification Strategies to Mitigate Mycotoxins in Food and Feed that was published in Toxins

Keywords

deoxynivalenol --- epimer --- polarity --- Tri101 --- molecular --- interactions --- spores of Ganoderma lucidum --- oxidative stress --- aflatoxins --- antioxidant capability --- mycotoxin --- patulin --- biodegradation --- Pichia caribbica --- proteomics --- intracellular and extracellular enzymes --- Bacillus licheniformis CK1 --- zearalenone (ZEA) --- serum hormones --- estrogen receptor (ER) --- post-weaning female piglets --- curcumin --- aflatoxin B1 --- CYP450 --- AFBO–DNA --- chicks --- aflatoxin B1 --- photodegradation product --- TQEF-MS/MS --- cell viability --- furan rings --- mycotoxin --- toxigenic Fusarium --- biological control --- Trichoderma --- modified mycotoxin --- aflatoxin B1 --- aflatoxin biodegradation preparation --- Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 --- ameliorating effects --- growth performance --- antioxidant function --- residue --- aflatoxins --- biotransformation --- enzymatic detoxification --- laccase --- mild technologies --- food safety --- mycotoxins mitigation --- aflatoxin B1 --- aflatoxin-degrading enzyme --- biodegradation --- Bacillus shackletonii --- purification --- Sporobolomyces sp. IAM 13481 --- microbial patulin degradation --- desoxypatulinic acid --- ascladiol --- aflatoxins --- Aspergillus flavus --- Corylus avellana --- fatty acids --- thermal treatment --- Aflatoxin B1 --- Aspergillus flavus --- hyssop --- inhibition --- oxidative stress --- DBD --- atmospheric pressure --- low temperature plasma --- mycotoxins --- degradation --- maize --- aflatoxins --- neutral electrolyzed water --- detoxification --- turkey --- mycotoxins --- biotransformation --- degradation --- enzymes --- application --- mycotoxin --- detoxification --- biodegradation --- biotransformation --- enzyme --- microorganism identification --- mycotoxin --- trichothecene --- deoxynivalenol --- bioprospecting --- detoxification --- Fusarium --- cold atmospheric pressure plasma technology --- mycotoxins --- physical decontamination --- chemical decontamination --- biological decontamination --- patulin --- mycotoxin --- mitigation --- decontamination --- food and beverage --- processing --- n/a

Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038977827 9783038977834 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-783-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Abstract

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungal species. They can contaminate human food and animal feed, and have been a threat for thousands of years. The gastrointestinal tract is the first target when ingesting mycotoxin-contaminated food or feed. As unlikely as it sounds, the investigations concerning the effects of mycotoxins on the intestine are still in their early stages. This book gathers the most recent advances related to the characterization of the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins. Substantial data assembled on the damage caused to a number of histological structures and functions of the intestine remove any remaining doubt about this organ being a primary target for the toxicity of mycotoxins. An interesting overview of the detrimental effects of mycotoxins on the gut-hosted microbiota—now regarded as a fully-fledged organ associated with the gut—is also given. Finally, outstanding contributions in this book address questions relating to the suitability of current regulations to protect against alterations of the intestine, and to the efficacy assessment of new detoxification strategies using the intestinal toxicity of mycotoxins as a relevant endpoint.

Keywords

mice --- aflatoxin B1 --- intestinal bacterial flora --- response --- Clostridium sp. WJ06 --- deoxynivalenol --- pig --- intestinal morphology --- microbial diversity --- aflatoxin M1 --- ochratoxin A --- intestinal epithelial cells --- tight junction --- permeability --- ileum --- jejunum --- deoxynivalenol --- piglet --- contaminated feed --- tight junction --- aflatoxin B1 --- small intestine --- histopathological lesions --- ultrastructural changes --- toll-like receptors --- T-2 toxin --- enteric nervous system --- pig --- vasoactive intestinal polypeptide --- mycotoxins --- zearalenone --- deoxynivalenol --- histology --- ultrastructure --- large intestine --- pig --- Claviceps --- liver --- digestive tract --- mycotoxin --- sclerotia --- ergot alkaloids --- toxicity --- deoxynivalenol --- Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM I-1079 --- intestine --- transcriptome --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- lipid metabolism --- fumonisin --- microbiota --- pigs --- MiSeq 16S rDNA sequencing --- intestinal microbiota --- hydrogen-rich water --- lactulose --- Fusarium mycotoxins --- piglets --- functional oligosaccharides --- mycotoxins --- swine --- explant technique --- intestinal morphology --- goblet cells --- deoxynivalenol --- zearalenone --- pig --- colon microbiota --- Lactobacillus --- detoxification --- zearalenone --- doses --- caecal water --- genotoxicity --- pre-pubertal gilts --- atlantic salmon --- deoxynivalenol --- feed --- intestine --- PCR --- proliferating cell nuclear antigen --- suppressor of cytokine signaling --- tight junctions --- Zearalenone --- N-acetylcysteine --- SIEC02 cells --- Mitochondrial apoptosis --- n/a

Circulating Tumor Cells: Finding Rare Events for A Huge Knowledge of Cancer Dissemination

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ISBN: 9783039286980 / 9783039286997 Year: Pages: 366 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-699-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Abstract

The analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as a real-time liquid biopsy approach can be used to obtain new insights into metastasis biology, and as companion diagnostics to improve the stratification of therapies and to obtain insights into the therapy-induced selection of cancer cells. In this book, we will cover all the different facets of CTCs to assemble a huge corpus of knowledge on cancer dissemination: technologies for their enrichment, detection, and characterization; their analysis at the single-cell level; their journey as CTC microemboli; their clinical relevance; their biology with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); their stem-cell properties; their potential to initiate metastasis at distant sites; their ex vivo expansion; and their escape from the immune system.

Keywords

circulating tumor cells --- circulating tumor DNA --- liquid biopsy --- metastatic colorectal cancer --- FOLFIRINOX --- circulating tumor cells --- CTC --- liquid biopsy --- CTM --- CTMat --- CTC biology --- CTC capture technology --- metastasis --- circulating tumor cells (CTCs) --- hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) --- castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) --- epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) --- fibronectin --- integrin B1 --- SLUG --- major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) --- immunomodulation --- bone marrow --- melanoma --- disseminated tumor cells --- solid cancers --- single-cell analysis --- enrichment and detection technologies --- flow cytometry --- tumor stem cells --- HMB-45 --- CD133 --- locally advanced rectal cancer --- circulating tumor cells --- RAD23B --- thymidylate synthase --- chemoradioresistance --- liquid biopsy --- circulating tumor cells --- epithelial–mesenchymal transition --- stem cells --- early breast cancer --- prostate cancer (PCa) --- circulating tumor cells (CTC) --- liquid biopsy --- circulating tumor cells --- metastasis --- xenograft models --- breast cancer --- prostate cancer --- CTC --- AR --- AR-V7 --- ctRNA --- exosome --- circulating tumor cells --- hematological cells --- neutrophils --- platelets --- liquid biopsy --- circulating tumor cells --- melanoma --- liquid biopsy --- EPISPOT --- CellSearch® --- liquid biopsy --- CTCs --- immune checkpoint inhibitors --- PD-L1 expression --- NSCLC --- small-cell lung carcinoma --- circulating tumor cells --- microfluidics --- gene expression analysis --- synaptophysin --- chromogranin A --- rovalpituzumab tesirine --- leukocyte-derived extracellular vesicles --- immunofluorescence imaging --- EpCAM enrichment --- CellSearch --- EasyCount slides --- ACCEPT --- CTC --- heterogeneity --- liquid biopsy --- liquid surgery --- clinical utility --- circulating tumor cells (CTCs) --- glioma --- biomarker --- rVAR2 --- malaria --- enrichment and detection technologies --- prostate cancer --- biomarkers --- circulating tumor cells --- androgen receptor --- ARV7 --- abiraterone --- enzalutamide --- metastasis --- tumor-initiating cells (TICs) --- circulating tumor cells (CTCs) --- CTC-derived xenografts --- CTC-derived ex vivo models --- cerebrospinal liquid biopsy --- in vivo flow cytometry --- tumor biomarkers --- circulating tumor cells --- ctDNA --- miRNA --- exosomes --- emboli --- targeted therapy --- circulating tumor cells --- tumor cell dissemination --- immune system --- microbiome --- circulating tumor cells (CTCs) --- clinical trials --- breast cancer --- CTC-based treatment decisions --- circulating tumour cells --- colorectal cancer --- colorectal surgery --- microsatellite instability --- microfluidics --- immunophenotyping --- fish --- liquid biopsy --- circulating leukemia cells --- circulating plasma cells --- n/a

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