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Augmentation of Brain Function: Facts, Fiction and Controversy. Volume I: Brain-Machine Interfaces

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456147 Year: Pages: 666 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-614-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Volume I, entitled “Augmentation of Brain Functions: Brain-Machine Interfaces”, is a collection of articles on neuroprosthetic technologies that utilize brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). BMIs strive to augment the brain by linking neural activity, recorded invasively or noninvasively, to external devices, such as arm prostheses, exoskeletons that enable bipedal walking, means of communication and technologies that augment attention. In addition to many practical applications, BMIs provide useful research tools for basic science. Several articles cover challenges and controversies in this rapidly developing field, such as ways to improve information transfer rate. BMIs can be applied to the awake state of the brain and to the sleep state, as well. BMIs can augment action planning and decision making. Importantly, BMI operations evoke brain plasticity, which can have long-lasting effects. Advanced neural decoding algorithms that utilize optimal feedback controllers are key to the BMI performance. BMI approach can be combined with the other augmentation methods; such systems are called hybrid BMIs. Overall, it appears that BMI will lead to many powerful and practical brain-augmenting technologies in the future.

Augmentation of Brain Function: Facts, Fiction and Controversy. Volume II: Neurostimulation and Pharmacological Approaches

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456154 Year: Pages: 403 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-615-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The Volume II is entitled “Neurostimulation and pharmacological approaches”. This volume describes augmentation approaches, where improvements in brain functions are achieved by modulation of brain circuits with electrical or optical stimulation, or pharmacological agents. Activation of brain circuits with electrical currents is a conventional approach that includes such methods as (i) intracortical microstimulation (ICMS), (ii) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and (iii) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). tDCS and TMS are often regarded as noninvasive methods. Yet, they may induce long-lasting plastic changes in the brain. This is why some authors consider the term “noninvasive” misleading when used to describe these and other techniques, such as stimulation with transcranial lasers. The volume further discusses the potential of neurostimulation as a research tool in the studies of perception, cognition and behavior. Additionally, a notion is expressed that brain augmentation with stimulation cannot be described as a net zero sum proposition, where brain resources are reallocated in such a way that gains in one function are balanced by costs elsewhere. In recent years, optogenetic methods have received an increased attention, and several articles in Volume II cover different aspects of this technique. While new optogenetic methods are being developed, the classical electrical stimulation has already been utilized in many clinically relevant applications, like the vestibular implant and tactile neuroprosthesis that utilizes ICMS. As a peculiar usage of neurostimulation and pharmacological methods, Volume II includes several articles on augmented memory. Memory prostheses are a popular recent development in the stimulation-based BMIs. For example, in a hippocampal memory prosthesis, memory content is extracted from hippocampal activity using a multiple-input, multiple-output non-linear dynamical model. As to the pharmacological approaches to augmenting memory and cognition, the pros and cons of using nootropic drugs are discussed.

Augmentation of Brain Function: Facts, Fiction and Controversy. Volume III: From Clinical Applications to Ethical Issues and Futuristic Ideas

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456161 Year: Pages: 338 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-616-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The final volume in this tripartite series on Brain Augmentation is entitled “From Clinical Applications to Ethical Issues and Futuristic Ideas”. Many of the articles within this volume deal with translational efforts taking the results of experiments on laboratory animals and applying them to humans. In many cases, these interventions are intended to help people with disabilities in such a way so as to either restore or extend brain function. Traditionally, therapies in brain augmentation have included electrical and pharmacological techniques. In contrast, some of the techniques discussed in this volume add specificity by targeting select neural populations. This approach opens the door to where and how to promote the best interventions. Along the way, results have empowered the medical profession by expanding their understanding of brain function. Articles in this volume relate novel clinical solutions for a host of neurological and psychiatric conditions such as stroke, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, epilepsy, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), traumatic brain injury, and disorders of consciousness. In disease, symptoms and signs denote a departure from normal function. Brain augmentation has now been used to target both the core symptoms that provide specificity in the diagnosis of a disease, as well as other constitutional symptoms that may greatly handicap the individual. The volume provides a report on the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in ASD with reported improvements of core deficits (i.e., executive functions). TMS in this regard departs from the present-day trend towards symptomatic treatment that leaves unaltered the root cause of the condition. In diseases, such as schizophrenia, brain augmentation approaches hold promise to avoid lengthy pharmacological interventions that are usually riddled with side effects or those with limiting returns as in the case of Parkinson’s disease. Brain stimulation can also be used to treat auditory verbal hallucination, visuospatial (hemispatial) neglect, and pain in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis. The brain acts as a telecommunication transceiver wherein different bandwidth of frequencies (brainwave oscillations) transmit information. Their baseline levels correlate with certain behavioral states. The proper integration of brain oscillations provides for the phenomenon of binding and central coherence. Brain augmentation may foster the normalization of brain oscillations in nervous system disorders. These techniques hold the promise of being applied remotely (under the supervision of medical personnel), thus overcoming the obstacle of travel in order to obtain healthcare. At present, traditional thinking would argue the possibility of synergism among different modalities of brain augmentation as a way of increasing their overall effectiveness and improving therapeutic selectivity. Thinking outside of the box would also provide for the implementation of brain-to-brain interfaces where techniques, proper to artificial intelligence, could allow us to surpass the limits of natural selection or enable communications between several individual brains sharing memories, or even a global brain capable of self-organization. Not all brains are created equal. Brain stimulation studies suggest large individual variability in response that may affect overall recovery/treatment, or modify desired effects of a given intervention. The subject’s age, gender, hormonal levels may affect an individual’s cortical excitability. In addition, this volume discusses the role of social interactions in the operations of augmenting technologies. Finally, augmenting methods could be applied to modulate consciousness, even though its neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Finally, this volume should be taken as a debate on social, moral and ethical issues on neurotechnologies. Brain enhancement may transform the individual into someone or something else. These techniques bypass the usual routes of accommodation to environmental exigencies that exalted our personal fortitude: learning, exercising, and diet. This will allow humans to preselect desired characteristics and realize consequent rewards without having to overcome adversity through more laborious means. The concern is that humans may be playing God, and the possibility of an expanding gap in social equity where brain enhancements may be selectively available to the wealthier individuals. These issues are discussed by a number of articles in this volume. Also discussed are the relationship between the diminishment and enhancement following the application of brain-augmenting technologies, the problem of “mind control” with BMI technologies, free will the duty to use cognitive enhancers in high-responsibility professions, determining the population of people in need of brain enhancement, informed public policy, cognitive biases, and the hype caused by the development of brain- augmenting approaches.

Eating Disorders and Obesity: The Challenge for Our Times

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ISBN: 9783038979982 / 9783038979999 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-999-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Eating Disorders have traditionally been considered apart from public health concerns about increasing obesity. It is evident that these problems are, however, related in important ways. Comorbid obesity and eating disorder is increasing at a faster rate than either obesity or eating disorders alone and one in five people with obesity also presents with an Eating Disorder, commonly but not limited to Binge Eating Disorder. New disorders have emerged such as normal weight or Atypical Anorexia Nervosa. However research and practice too often occurs in parallel with a failure to understand the weight disorder spectrum and consequences of co-morbidity that then contributes to poorer outcomes for people living with a larger size and an Eating Disorder. Urgently needed are trials that will inform more effective assessment, treatment and care where body size and eating disorder symptoms are both key to the research question.

Keywords

obesity risk --- mothers --- women --- young children --- socioecological --- obesity --- eating disorders --- binge eating --- dieting --- treatment --- the Roma --- nurse --- overweight --- obesity --- health education --- lifestyle factors --- nutrition --- cultural features --- spinal cord injury --- athlete --- energy availability --- nutrient deficiency --- low energy availability --- bone mineral density --- para athlete --- menstrual dysfunction --- Female Athlete Triad --- Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports (RED-S) --- binge eating --- questionnaire --- psychometric --- eating disorders --- obesity --- obesity --- weight loss --- bariatric surgery --- eating behaviour --- psychology --- Bulimia Nervosa --- binge-eating disorder --- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders --- International Classification of Diseases --- biofeedback --- EEG-Neurofeedback --- fMRI-Neurofeedback --- eating disorders --- psychophysiology --- eating disorders-related symptoms --- loss of control eating --- obesity --- BMI --- adolescent --- females --- family functioning --- energy intake --- physical fitness --- visceral adipose tissue --- obesity --- eating disorders --- nutrition --- physical activity --- exercise --- bulimia --- binge eating disorder --- feeding behavior --- cognition --- obesity --- event-related potential --- P3 --- children --- eating disorders --- eating behavior --- feeding practices --- obesity --- EEG --- frequency bands --- obesity --- brain activity --- impulsivity --- children --- eating disorders --- obesity --- prevention --- food industry --- food environment --- food policy --- executive function --- obesity --- binge-eating disorder --- food addiction --- addictive-like eating --- dietary patterns --- body satisfaction --- orthorexia nervosa --- students --- binge-eating disorder --- BED --- obesity --- binge-type eating --- neuromedin U receptor 2 --- NMUR2 --- nucleus accumbens --- ventral tegmental area --- usability study --- online health intervention --- adolescents --- school setting --- eating disorders --- overweight --- prevention --- engagement --- E-Mental Health --- bulimia nervosa --- binge eating disorder --- weight --- dieting --- treatment

Nutrition and Vulnerable Groups

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211203 / 9783039211210 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-121-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Food insecurity is a complex ‘wicked’ problem that results from a range of unstable and uncertain physical, social, cultural and economic factors that limits access to nutritious food. Globally, 800 million people are under-nourished, and around 2 billion are overweight/obese or have micronutrient deficiency. These populations are largely positioned in developing countries where disease burden is high and impacts health budgets and productivity. Similarly developed countries, cities and neighbourhoods are experiencing a greater emergence of vulnerable populations. This is in part explained by the change in the food production and manufacturing, the retraction in economic climates, the increase in food price, and in some regions reduced food availability and access.Vulnerable groups include but are not limited to migrant populations, Indigenous people, elderly, pregnant women, those with disability, homeless, young children and youth. Poor nutrition at significant periods of growth and development and during life impact long term health outcomes increasing non-communicable disease prevalence, health cost and reducing economic productivity.

Keywords

breastfeeding --- feeding practices --- infant feeding --- nutrition --- malnutrition --- pediatrics --- primary health care --- low-income population --- popular restaurant --- lunch --- energy density --- nutrition --- food security --- HFIAS --- double burden of malnutrition --- child stunting --- Indonesia --- emergency food assistance --- food pantry --- food insecurity --- dietary patterns --- dietary quality --- nutrition --- knowledge --- refugees --- children --- school intervention --- Lebanon --- rural populations --- food assistance --- low-income --- vulnerable groups --- food poverty --- food insecurity --- food literacy --- public health --- socioeconomics --- Obesity --- metabolic syndrome --- refugee --- women --- Palestine --- consumption of fruits and vegetables --- low-income undergraduate students --- Student Assistance Program --- adiposity markers --- obesity --- fat mass --- abdominal obesity --- adolescent health --- school performance --- Orang Asli --- food insecurity --- Malaysia --- challenges --- in-depth interview --- fruit and vegetables --- rural children --- Social Cognitive Theory --- undernutrition --- food security --- nutrition security --- village chickens --- livestock --- animal-source food --- Tanzania --- sub-Saharan Africa --- resource-poor settings --- children --- welfare home --- body image --- obesity --- BMI-for-age --- food security --- self-esteem --- self-efficacy --- food security --- public health --- place-based --- co-design --- vulnerable groups --- food poverty --- food insecurity --- food literacy --- public health --- charitable food sector --- food insecurity --- food literacy --- nutrition education --- training --- tertiary education --- n/a

Gluten-Free Diet

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ISBN: 9783038977360 9783038977377 Year: Pages: 318 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-737-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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In the last few years, an increasing number of individuals have adopted a gluten free diet (GFD). A significant proportion of that includes patients affected by celiac disease (CD), who have to follow a strict GFD for medical purposes. However, a high number of individuals are currently following a GFD without medical counseling and without a specific diagnosis needing a gluten withdrawal from the diet. This is due to the frequently incorrect information diffused on the Internet and mass media on the topic of GFD. For these reasons, research on the GFD and its clinical use and biological effects is urgently needed.

Keywords

Celiac Disease --- depression --- gluten-free diet --- dietary adherence --- gluten --- gastric emptying --- cholecyst --- celiac disease --- non celiac gluten sensitivity --- gluten-free diet --- gastrointestinal symptoms --- quality of life --- Brazilian CD-QoL --- quality of life --- celiac disease --- questionnaire --- coeliac disease --- celiac disease --- gluten --- gluten-free diet --- fortification --- micronutrient --- cost --- celiac disease --- diagnosis --- gliadin --- gluten --- glutenin --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- oral food challenge --- pepsin --- wheat allergy --- celiac disease (CD) --- quality of life (QoL) --- gluten-free diet --- disease duration --- place of residence --- educational level --- economic status --- body mass index (BMI) --- celiac disease --- gluten-free diet --- gut microbiota --- gluten-free diet --- celiac disease --- children --- teenagers --- gluten-related disorders --- celiac disease --- gut microbiota --- gluten-free diet --- Pseudomonas --- gluten-free diet --- mineral --- deficiency --- calcium --- iron --- magnesium --- zinc --- celiac disease --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- gut motility --- gluten-free diet --- gluten-related disorders --- gluten-free diet --- coeliac disease --- non-coeliac gluten sensitivity --- irritable bowel syndrome --- mood disorders --- affective disorders --- depression --- major depressive disorder --- mental health --- nutrition --- celiac disease --- gluten-free diet --- diary recommended intake --- food habit --- body composition --- non-coeliac gluten sensitivity --- gluten --- wheat --- low FODMAP diet --- irritable bowel syndrome --- beta cell --- beta-cell stress --- celiac disease --- gluten-free diet --- high-fat diet-induced obesity --- intestinal permeability --- islet of Langerhans --- NOD mouse --- type 1 diabetes --- type 2 diabetes --- FODMAP intake --- celiac disease --- irritable bowel syndrome --- gluten-free diet --- gastrointestinal symptoms --- celiac disease --- gluten-free diet --- effectiveness --- adherence --- nutritionists --- clinic --- serology --- duodenal biopsies --- structured questionnaires --- peptides derived from gluten in faeces and urine --- gluten --- adherence --- serology --- villous atrophy --- mucosal recovery --- threshold --- celiac disease --- body composition --- gluten free diet --- children --- celiac disease --- gluten --- gluten-free diet --- screening --- outcome --- gluten sensitivity --- osteoporosis --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- gluten re-introduction --- gluten-free diet --- gastrointestinal symptoms --- celiac disease --- ?-gliadin --- 33-mer --- DQ2.5-glia-?1 --- DQ2.5-glia-?2 --- DQ2.5-glia-?3 epitopes --- wheat species --- n/a --- gluten --- gluten-free diet --- coeliac disease --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- non-coeliac wheat sensitivity --- gliadin --- microbiota

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