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Pastoralism and Socio-technological Transformations in Northern Benin - Fulani Innovations in Pastoral Migration, Livelihood Diversification and Professional Association

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ISBN: 9783863953461 Year: DOI: 10.17875/gup2017-1072 Language: English
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-05 11:02:24
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Pastoralists throughout Africa face increasing pressures. In Benin, governmental development policies and programmes in crop farming are changing power relations between herders and farmers to favour the latter. How are the Fulani pastoralists responding to these threats to their existence? Georges Djohy explores the dynamics in local use of natural resources and in inter-ethnic relations resulting from development interventions. He combines the approaches of science and technology studies – looking at the co-construction of society and technology – and political ecology – looking at the power relations shaping the dynamics of economic, environmental and social change – so as to throw light on the forces of marginalisation, adaptation and innovation at work in northern Benin. Having worked there for many years, Djohy has been able to uncover gradual processes of socio-technological change that are happening “behind the scenes” of agricultural development involving mechanisation, herbicide use, tree planting, land registration and natural resource conservation. He reveals how farmers are using these interventions as “weapons” in order to gain more rights over larger areas of land, in other words, to support indigenous land grabbing from herders who had been using the land since decades for grazing. He documents how the Fulani are innovating to ensure their survival, e.g. by using new technologies for transport and communication, developing new strategies of livestock feeding and herd movement, and developing complementary sources of household income. The Fulani are organising themselves from local to national level to provide technological and socio-cultural services, manage conflicts and gain a stronger political voice, e.g. to be able to achieve demarcation of corridors for moving livestock through cultivated areas. They even use non-functioning mini-dairies – another example of development intervention – to demonstrate their modernity and to open up other opportunities to transform their pastoral systems. This book provides insights into normally hidden technical and social dynamics that are unexpected outcomes of development interventions.

Methode zur Analyse von raumrelevanten Prozessen in Entwicklungsländern: Das Beispiel des Küstenraums von Benin = Méthode d'analyse de processus spatiaux dans les pays en développement: l'exemple de la zone côtière du Bénin

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Book Series: Regionalwissenschaftliche Forschungen = Regional Science Research ISSN: 18631835 ISBN: 9783866447509 Year: Volume: 33 Pages: XVIII, 288 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000024383 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-11 12:46:27
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In developing countries there is a lack of space-oriented data. This complicates the implementation of different measures in existing social, economical and ecological systems and also restricts the estimation of future risks. Since systematic and periodical surveys in the sense of a census concept are mostly unrealistic, a method is needed to produce sufficiently adequate estimations of processes by random samples and indicators.This case study aims at developing a method on the basis of the combination of the representative samples and the indicator-based approaches for analyzing space relevant socioeconomic and ecological processes in Benin. In total we identified three main processes in the coastal area of Benin: the migration into coastal zone, the environment changes (land use, climate change and natural risks) and the vulnerability of local residents. Method consisted to two types of surveys: the interrogation of responsible persons in public office (32 semi-structured interviews) and of the population groups (667 structured interviews). These groups were distinguished according to ethnicity, gender, age as well as location of the dwelling place (rural or urban zone). In total, 262 women and 405 men belonging to the ethnic groups Fon, Yoruba, Houedah, Xla, Toffinou, Wéménou and Gun were interviewed. Members of each ethnic group were grouped according to sex (men and women), marital status and age (young adults, adults and elderly persons).For the data analysis, we used the log (x+1), the analysis variance using 4 factors, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the Factor Analysis (AFC) and Log-linear analysis. Multivariate analysis was applied to define the spatial variability of the vulnerability in the area of investigation. Results showed that: (1) the coastal area of Benin have the highest population density in the country, which can be attributed to migration and an increase in population, (2) there is a relationship between ethnicity and incidence of occupation as well as between religious affiliation and incidence of occupation, (3) the coastal area experiences numerous environmental problems and the effects of climate change, (4) all this has an impact on the socioeconomic components of the coastal area and increase the vulnerability of the coastal inhabitants, (5) this leads to the marginalization of actor groups and social problems, (6) the local population has certain patterns to explain natural and coastal risks and of vulnerability, (7) therefore, their reasoning of possible actions in response to issues which arise differs markedly from that of public administration, (8) taking into account this rationality is crucial in the participative coastal zone management.The method used is applicable for the analysis of regional processes when dealing with insufficient data. In addition it is transferable to other tropical coastal regions with a similar set of data problems. Therewith, the conducted methodology has successfully proven to be a suitable alternative under the specified conditions. In the end the new approach to detect spatially relevant processes with heterogeneous data sets, combing remote sensing, GIS and socioeconomic surveys for further research is identified to overcome the limitations of the achieved results that still exist.

Les paradoxes de la démocratisation en Afrique : Analyse institutionnelle et stratégique

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ISBN: 9791036513824 DOI: 10.4000/books.pum.15078 Language: French
Publisher: Presses de l’Université de Montréal
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:44
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Pourquoi certains pays réussissent-ils à passer d’un régime autoritaire à un régime démocratique, alors que d’autres, pourtant presque semblables sur le plan contextuel, n’y parviennent pas ? En examinant le cas de deux pays de l’Afrique subsaharienne, le Bénin et le Niger, et en comparant leur trajectoire au cours d’une période de démocratisation (de 1989 à 1999), l’auteur explique pourquoi l’expérience a évolué, au Bénin, dans le sens de la consolidation, alors qu’au Niger, deux coups d’État sont venus interrompre le processus. Les héritages des anciens régimes, les formules institutionnelles et les stratégies des acteurs apparaissent comme les facteurs principaux qui limitent ou facilitent la transition et la consolidation démocratiques. L’analyse de ces facteurs met à jour des variables discriminantes de la démocratisation qui sont applicables à de nombreux pays dans le monde. À la fois étude binaire et application de l’approche institutionnelle, cet ouvrage s’adresse tout autant aux comparatistes, aux africanistes qu’aux chercheurs et étudiants en science politique.

Zeitgenössische Kunst aus Afrika

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ISBN: 9783205994022 Year: Pages: 408 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/oapen_574818 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3254
Subject: Anthropology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-09-08 11:01:28
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Contemporary art of Africa reached a wider audience in the aftermath of the Magiciens de la Terre exhibition (Paris 1989). This study of fourteen artists from Ivory Coast and Benin is based on ethnographic fieldwork in both countries (1997), during which I worked with several artists. In order to consider the reception of contemporary art of Africa in the European/North American art world, researches in London, Paris, and New York followed (1997, 1998). In Ivory Coast, I focused on a group of academically trained artists who belong to the Vohou Vohou movement which started in the early 1980s, and reached prominence in the 1990s. In Benin, I worked with artists who were not academically trained. One needs, however, to differentiate, as some had training as traditional artists, like the iron sculptures Calixte and Théodore Dakpogan, and adapted in the early 1990s their acquired skills to the creation of contemporary sculptures. Others, like Romuald Hazoumè and Georges Adéagbo, are self-trained. But they too interact with academically trained artists during residencies in various, West African or European countries. In the major part of the volume, I am presenting the artists: which materials they are working with, what are their stylistic characteristics, which ideas and reflections are informing their work. In a following chapter, I try to trace the artists’ trajectories, the connections they are using in their work, be it to traditional stylistic canons, materials, techniques, and concepts, or to European modernism. In doing so, I adopt a situated perspective from these local art worlds (Abidjan and Cotonou/Porto Novo), in order to show the complexity of these creative artistic practices. Other chapters of the volume deal with the notions of the art world (Becker’s sociological one and Danto’s cognitive). From an anthropological viewpoint I argue for a combination of both notions. Becker’s is important as to show the social, cultural, and economic aspects of the local art world. These aspects concern what is possible, or what is restricting the artistic endeavour. Danto’s concept needs an adaptation, in as far as it is not an embedding of the works of these artists within the grand narrative of Occidental art history. Rather, the notion is used in the plural, as the focus is on local, regional, and transcultural connections of artistic practices. I thereafter argue against a universalising, hegemonic narrative of the European/North American art world. The other notion, which is discussed in the volume, is the one of ‘contemporary African art.’ Instead of analysing the notion from a theoretical perspective, I follow the artists, how they explain their art and its possible African character. This approach shows a wide continuum between a clear African dimension and one that considers contemporary art practices as encompassing without any regional specification. The final chapter deals with reflections about a modern, contemporary anthropology of art. Such an anthropology does not restrict itself to the study of ethnic arts but considers all art as its subject. In particular, it has to deal with contemporary art in its present, multiple expressions on the basis of ethnographic fieldwork. It may participate in wider discussions about global art (although the notion is not dealt with in the volume), from locally situated gazes. Context is a major topic in that respect. While former studies in the anthropology of art contextualised works of art by considering their functions and meanings, context is here as well considered as related to artistic practices, the connections to other skills, techniques, materials, styles, or ideas which are visualised in the work of art. I would like to express my gratitude to the ‘Fonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung’ (FWF) which enabled the fieldworks, archival researches, and the publication of the present volume.

Caminos cruzados : Ensayos en antropología social, etnoecología y etnoeducación

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ISBN: 9782709925464 DOI: 10.4000/books.irdeditions.18887 Language: Spanish
Publisher: IRD Éditions
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-31 11:25:14
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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El presente libro nos ofrece la oportunidad de conocer el avance de las ideas sobre los interrogantes más destacados de la investigación socio-antropológica y lingüística que se realiza actualmente en Venezuela y en sus espacios limítrofes, en Brasil y Colombia. El lector encontrará también ejemplos de sociedades africanas -de Benín y de Costa de Marfil- que dan materia de reflexión y de comparación. Esta obra es la expresión de la riqueza de las problemáticas cuando, ajustándose al seno del conocimiento, la antropología integra los diferentes puntos de vista al tomarse el tiempo de cruzar el camino de las disciplinas afines. A partir de programas de investigación-participación o experiencias más concentradas en la investigación fundamental sin olvidar, por lo tanto, los intereses indígenas, las diversas contribuciones dan cuenta de las principales preocupaciones contemporáneas de las ciencias sociales. Se observa particularmente una doble orientación en los estudios. Una intenta superar los modelos explicativos monofactoriales y formular análisis que consideran diversos acercamientos, la otra trata de establecer vínculos entre la teoría y la práctica social. Ambos objetivos ilustran un mismo esfuerzo para establecer relaciones entre diferentes campos del conocimiento e integrar sus aportes específicos.

Décentralisation et pouvoirs en Afrique : En contrepoint, modèles territoriaux français

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ISBN: 9782709926140 DOI: 10.4000/books.irdeditions.16490 Language: French
Publisher: IRD Éditions
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-31 11:25:14
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Depuis les années 1990, de nombreux pays africains ont engagé des décentralisations administratives, soutenus en cela par les instances internationales. Ces réformes, qui s’inscrivent à une échelle globale, bousculent les équilibres antérieurs entre différents pôles de pouvoir et redéfinissent les relations entre États et sociétés civiles. À travers une décennie d’évolution, éclairée par une histoire de longue durée, des anthropologues, géographes, historiens, politistes, socio-linguistes analysent ces processus dans cinq pays d’Afrique. Ils décrivent les nouvelles formes de compétition autour des pouvoirs et du contrôle des ressources, mais soulignent aussi l’émergence de dynamiques novatrices, conjuguant communautés et citoyenneté. Une mise en regard avec l’histoire de la décentralisation et la genèse des « pays » en France apporte des éclairages inattendus sur les relations Nord/Sud, du double point de vue de la circulation des modèles et de l’existence de paradoxes communs. Ce livre intéressera tous ceux – chercheurs, acteurs ou institutions – qui travaillent sur la décentralisation, et, plus largement, sur les refontes des États en temps de mondialisation

Sediment Transport in Coastal Waters

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ISBN: 9783038978442 9783038978459 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-845-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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The interface of 440,000 km long coastline in the world is subject to global change, with an increasing human pressure (land use, buildings, sand mining, dredging) and increasing population. Improving our knowledge on involved mechanisms and sediment transport processes, monitoring the evolution of sedimentary stocks and anticipating changes in littoral and coastal zones is essential for this purpose. The special issue of Water on “Sediment transport in coastal waters” gathers thirteen papers which introduce the current revolution in the scientific research related to coastal and littoral hydrosedimentary dynamics, and reflect the diversity of concerns on which research in coastal sediment transport is based, and current trends — topics and preferred methods — to address them.

Keywords

suspended sediment --- sediment transport --- coastal hydraulics --- Mekong --- river plume --- monsoon --- mathematical model --- geochemical map --- particle transfer process --- tidal current --- analysis of variance (ANOVA) --- Cluster analysis --- Mahalanobis’ generalized distances --- Seto Inland Sea --- East Coast Low --- nearshore processes --- coastal erosion --- coastal management --- climate change --- numerical modelling --- Southeast Australia --- soil erosion --- SWAT --- water scarcity --- sediment transport modelling --- Tafna catchment --- North Africa --- suspended sediment --- sediment transport --- lagoon --- geochemistry --- Ni mining --- sediment trap --- hydrodynamics --- New Caledonia --- dry season --- Senegal River delta --- Langue de Barbarie spit --- delta vulnerability --- river-mouth migration --- spit breaching --- ERA hindcast waves --- longshore sediment transport --- Vietnam --- South China Sea --- erosion --- recovery --- storminess --- winter monsoon --- typhoons --- shoreline --- waves forcing --- storms --- resilience --- post-storm recovery --- Bight of Benin --- seasonal cycle --- trend --- sand-mud mixture erosion --- numerical modelling --- non-cohesive to cohesive transition --- remote sensing reflectance --- turbidity --- seagrass beds --- bed shear stress --- fresh water runoff --- oceanic water intrusion --- suspended particulate matter --- aggregates --- flocculation --- biomass --- sediment --- turbidity --- remote-sensing --- MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) --- Support Vector Regression (SVR) --- oligotrophic lagoon --- bathymetry --- reflectance --- seabed colour --- coral reef --- New Caledonia --- sediment transport --- cohesive sediments --- non cohesive sediments --- sand --- mud --- coastal erosion --- sedimentation --- morphodynamics --- suspended particulate matter --- bedload

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