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Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health

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ISBN: 9783038428459 9783038428466 Year: Pages: VI, 188 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-20 13:26:39
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There is general agreement within the fields of food, nutrition, and medical sciences that an individual’s diet and lifestyle can substantially predispose one to, or protect against osteoporosis, low bone mass, and numerous other age-related bone diseases. Dietary bioactives, found diversity in a variety of foods from fruits to vegetables, herbs and spices, essential oils and beverages, have the potential to influence bone health. The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements has defined dietary bioactives as “compounds that are constituents in foods and dietary supplements, other than those needed to meet basic human nutritional needs, which are responsible for changes in health status.” These compounds are generally thought to be safe in food at normal consumption levels (e.g., polyphenols in plant foods). Dietary bioactives are currently being assessed for their properties beyond antioxidant capacity, including anti-inflammatory actions. Some compounds or classes of compounds have been reported to enhance bone formation and inhibit bone resorption through their actions on cell signaling pathways that influence osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation.Emerging scientific evidence is available, including observational studies and small clinical interventions that suggest consumption of certain dietary bioactives may have beneficial effects on bone health. Animal models have the unique advantage of feeding controlled diets for extended periods of time to assess long-term changes in bone. While bone mineral density (BMD) is the gold standard for assessing fracture risk, other factors such as bone structure, including trabecular thickness and separation, influence bone strength. Bone turnover rate is also predictive of fracture. Future research is needed to determine the types and quantities of dietary bioactives that are most effective and at what dose, as well as the mechanisms involved in modulating cellular events, in order to set precedence for larger clinical trials.

Keywords

dietary --- bioactives --- bone --- osteoporosis

Dietary Supplements

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ISBN: 9783038429210 9783038429227 Year: Pages: XII, 468 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-26 14:47:07
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We invite you to contribute to a Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Dietary Supplements”. The purpose of this Special Issue is to advance dietary supplement science by presenting commissioned overviews on four nutrients of particular current interest and controversy: Vitamin D, iodine, iron, and omega-3 fatty acids. To supplement these contributions, we welcome the submission of manuscripts describing original research or providing systematic reviews related to various issues in dietary supplement science. Manuscripts across a broad range of topics will be considered, but we are particularly interested in manuscripts that address the following areas:• Health effects, both positive and negative, of single nutrients, such as vitamin D, iodine, iron, and omega-3 fatty acids, with an emphasis on human studies.• Human clinical trials of dietary supplement use• Motivations for and prevalence of the use of dietary supplements• Mechanisms of action of nutrients and other bioactive components of dietary supplements.• Biomarkers of nutritional status, especially those measured in human samples.• Development and application of analytical tools for the measurement of bioactive components of dietary supplements.• Databases of dietary supplements' composition for use in improving the assessment of nutrient intake and of the exposure to ingredients present in these products in human populations.

Health-Promoting Components of Fruits and Vegetables in Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038426288 9783038426295 Year: Pages: 336 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-10 13:18:35
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Diet and lifestyle choices can substantially predispose an individual to, or protect against, many age- and obesity-related chronic diseases. According to the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, dietary bioactives arecompounds in foodsnot needed for basic human nutrition but responsible for changes in health status.1 These compounds are safe at normal food consumption levels (e.g., anthocyanins in berries) and their biological activities may come from a single compound (e.g., lutein in spinach) or a class of compounds (e.g., avenanthramides in oats) even if the exact identity and composition are unknown. Bioactive compounds of plants; can vary significantly in their ratios and relative concentrations depending onfactors such as cultivation, soil, altitude, and weather conditions. Substantial scientific evidence is available for some health promoting phytochemicals, such as dose-response relations, for performance and/or reduction in the risk of chronic disease. However, several limitations relating to absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of many dietary bioactives still exist and must be better understood This Special Issue compiles recent discoveries that advance our understanding of how dietary bioactive, particularly from fruits and vegetables, influence long-term health maintenance and disease prevention.

Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food

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ISBN: 9783038973546 9783038973553 Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-355-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-23 11:11:39
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Diet and nutrition are key tools in promoting health and reducing the comorbidities of chronic diseases. There are thousands of biomolecules in fruits, vegetables, wild and medicinal plants, other land and marine organisms, which can exert functional and health-promoting effects through bioactivity beyond nutrition. From the enormous amount of knowledge generated from different natural bioactive ingredients present in foods, we are aiming to bring together experts working in different fields of food, nutrition, and health, in order to work on this Special Issue, with a comprehensive collection of papers to gain insight into the most promising bioactive compounds in different foods, to improve the preservation of bioactivity during the food processing chain, and to provide scientific evidence of the efficacy of key bioactives in foods in preventing disease and improving health and wellbeing.

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