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Les cycles biogéochimiques et écosystèmes continentaux

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ISBN: 9782868839381 Year: Language: French
Publisher: EDP SCIENCES
Subject: Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2014-07-31 10:51:14
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Abstract

Depuis deux siècles, la poussée démographique et les développements industriels et agricoles provoquent un profond déséquilibre des cycles biogéochimiques de la planète. La vie est dépendante d'un grand nombre des éléments de la classification périodique. Certaines parties du cycle biogéochimique de ces éléments ont été explorées et une connaissance approfondie des mécanismes qui les font intervenir dans certains processus biologiques a été acquise : comprendre comment les éléments chimiques voyagent d'un règne à un autre permettra de déterminer une nouvelle approche de la nutrition, de la santé, de l'environnement et du climat. L'Académie des sciences a mené une réflexion multidisciplinaire pour établir l'état de l'art en ce domaine, tant du point de vue des connaissances fondamentales que de celui de la recherche et de ses structures.Ce rapport s'intéresse au comportement de différents éléments chimiques de la biogéosphère au cours de l'histoire de la planète, et plus particulièrement depuis que se manifeste une anthropisation accélérée (développement de la civilisation industrielle).Cet ouvrage se présente en quatre parties:- 1ère partie: approche par éléments: -carbone -nutriments -éléments majeurs de la lithosphère -radionucléides- 2ème partie: approche par milieux: -écosystèmes peu anthropisés -milieux à pression anthropique accentuée- 3ème partie: secteurs de recherche à développer: -les micro-organismes, clé des recyclages -nature, rôle et fonctions des matières organiques dans les sols -spécialisation des éléments chimiques- 4ème partie: nécessité de recourir à des modélisations et à des observatoires: -développement de la modélisation -mise en place et gestion de réseaux d'observation de longue durée.

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Biochemistry

Computational Analysis and Integration of MeDIP-seq Methylome Data (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9789535122401 Year: DOI: 10.5772/61207 Language: Undetermined
Publisher: IntechOpen Grant: Wellcome Trust - 99148
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:47:01
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The combinatorial number of possible methylomes in biological time and space is astronomical. Consequently, the computational analysis of methylomes needs to cater for a variety of data, throughput and resolution. Here, we review recent advances in 2nd generation sequencing (2GS) with a focus on the different methods used for the analysis of MeDIP-seq data. The challenges and opportunities presented by the integration of methylation data with other genomic data types are discussed as is the potential impact of emerging 3rd generation sequencing (3GS) based technologies on methylation analysis.

Keywords

sequencing --- biochemistry

Applications of Monte Carlo Simulation in Modelling of Biochemical Processes (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9789533074276 Year: DOI: 10.5772/14984 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen Grant: Wellcome Trust - 083174
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:47:01
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The biochemical models describing complex and dynamic metabolic systems are typically multi-parametric and non-linear, thus the identification of their parameters requires nonlinear regression analysis of the experimental data. The stochastic nature of the experimental samples poses the necessity to estimate not only the values fitting best to the model, but also the distribution of the parameters, and to test statistical hypotheses about the values of these parameters. In such situations the application of analytical models for parameter distributions is totally inappropriate because their assumptions are not applicable for intrinsically non-linear regressions. That is why, Monte Carlo simulations are a powerful tool to model biochemical processes.

Metabolomics in the Analysis of Inflammatory Diseases (Book chapter)

Book title: Metabolomics

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9789535100461 Year: DOI: 10.5772/31814 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen Grant: Wellcome Trust||Wellcome Trust - 089384||066490
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:47:01
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Most infections and traumatic injuries are cleared or repaired relatively rapidly and metabolic homoeostasis is soon restored. However, there is a broad range of inflammatory diseases which involve chronic activation of the immune system and, as a result, chronic persistent inflammation. We have been studying the metabolic consequences of chronic inflammatory diseases with the aim of identifying metabolic fingerprints which may provide clues about why the localised tissue disease persists.

Central Immune Senescence, Reversal Potentials (Book chapter)

Book title: Senescence

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ISBN: 9789535101444 Year: Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen Grant: Wellcome Trust - 079415
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:47:01
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Ageing is a complex process that affects all living organisms. Senescence is not only conceivable in multicellular organisms, but also in unicellulars. Unlike certain diseases that have specific morbidity rates, ageing is a physiological process that affects all individuals that live long enough (unaffected by i.e. predation or famine) to experience senescence.

Clinical Biochemistry

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ISBN: 9788024634975 Year: Pages: 426 Language: English
Publisher: Karolinum Press Grant: Klinická biochemie – inovovaná, interaktivní výuka e-learningem, reg. number: CZ.1.07/2.2.00/15.0048
Subject: Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-07 14:02:16
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Učebnice Clinical Biochemistry ve svých 39 kapitolách pokrývá všechna důležitá témata moderní klinické biochemie. Od preanalytických vlivů na laboratorní vyšetření přes analytické a klinické vlastnosti metod, kontrolu kvality v klinické laboratoři, automatizaci po jednotlivé indikace a interpretace laboratorních testů v diagnostice a sledování různých onemocnění. Cílem je dovést čtenáře k propojení všech aspektů ovlivňujících laboratorní výsledek a jejich kritickému zhodnocení při péči o pacienta. Text je určen především pro pregraduální studenty všeobecného lékařství, avšak jako referenční příručku ji využijí i začínající lékaři všech oborů.Clinical Biochemistry textbook covers in its 39 chapters all important topics of modern clinical biochemistry. From preanalytical influences to laboratory results through analytical and clinical properties of laboratory methods, quality control in Clinical laboratory, automation to indication and interpretation of laboratory tests in diagnosis and follow up of a plenty of diseases. The goal of this publication is to lead a reader to intersection of all aspects that influence laboratory results and to its critical evaluation in taking care about a patient. The text is designed to pregradual students of general medicine. However, also young medical doctors of all medical specializations can use the textbook as a reference guide.

A Master Regulator of Oxidative Stress - The Transcription Factor Nrf2

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9789535128373 9789535128380 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.5772/62743 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Due to that at present, the majority of diseases are associated with alterations in oxidative stress and inflammatory processes, and in that Nrf-2 is a modulator of these processes; knowing how this transcriptional factor functions and is regulated opens a therapeutic window to diverse diseases. Therefore, the efforts of various investigation groups are centered on finding activators and/or inhibitors of Nrf-2 to prevent or control diverse diseases, for example, cancer, where it would be important to regulate Nrf-2 in order for it to activate apoptosis pathways in cancerogenous cells, or in neurodegenerative diseases where cell death is predominant, it would be important for Nrf-2 to activate antiapoptotic pathways.

Molecular Docking

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ISBN: 9781789233544 9781789233551 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69830 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Molecular docking has always been and will be on the forefront of developments in the eminent field of drug design and medicinal chemistry. At the early days, drug discovery was based on blackboard drawings and expert intuition. However, as times move on, the amount of available information and overall knowledge base that needs to be analyzed cannot be processed manually. This, coupled by the rapid growth in computational infrastructure and processing power, has allowed for the efficient use of molecular docking tools and algorithms to be considered in the greater field of drug discovery. In the postgenomic era, molecular docking has become the key player for the screening of hundreds of thousands of compounds against a repertoire of pharmacological targets.

Free Radicals, Antioxidants and Diseases

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ISBN: 9781789235647 9781789235654 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70075 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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The current book entitled Free Radicals, Antioxidants, and Diseases gives an idea of detecting free radicals in vivo by newer techniques and provides insights into the roles played by various antioxidants in combating diseases caused by oxidative stress. The chapters included in this volume showcase new investigation in this field by the research groups around the world.

Glutathione in Health and Disease

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781789842753 9781789842760 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70965 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Reduced glutathione (GSH) is the most important thiol in living organisms. It is the key component of antioxidant system and serves as a free radical scavenger. There is a cycle of GSH in biological systems and this cycle provides higher intracellular levels of GSH. GSH depletion and apparent oxidative stress may cause toxicity and can affect the general well-being of the organism. GSH was shown to be preventive against aging, cancer, heart disease, infections and dementia. This book is mainly focused on GSH in health and disease. The readers will gain qualified scientific knowledge on the diverse functions of GSH, the importance of GSH status against oxidative stress and the interaction between GSH and nervous system-related infections from this book.

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