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Recent Advances in Acidophile Microbiology: Fundamentals and Applications

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451630 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-163-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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There is considerable interest in pure and applied studies of extremophilic microorganisms, including those (acidophiles) that are active in low pH environments. As elsewhere in microbiology, this is a fast-developing field, and the proposed special issue of Frontiers highlights many of the more recent advances that have been made in this area. Authors from leading scientific groups located in North and South America, Australasia and Europe have contributed to this e-book, and the topics covered include advances in molecular, biochemical, biogeochemical and industrial aspects of acidophile microbiology.

Microbial Ecology in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456468 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-646-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The microbial community in the oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre is dominated by unicellular microorganisms less than a few micrometers in size. Despite the persistent low nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton growth rates appear near maximal, sustained by the recycling of nutrients with plankton population sizes regulated by processes such as zooplankton grazing and viral lysis. Seasonal pulses of particle export to the deep sea and increases in phytoplankton abundance occur during the summer months; however, the factors that result in these imbalances in growth and loss processes are not well understood. Nonetheless, as a result of persistent fieldwork and development of sensitive methodologies, the biogeochemical and ecological dynamics occurring over timescales ranging from diel to interannual are being revealed. This Research Topic covers multiple aspects of microbial oceanography in the oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre including identification and isolation of microorganisms, quantification of microbial biomass and turnover, metabolism and physiological activities, and microbial-mediated biogeochemical cycling.All of the papers use field data collected by either the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program, the Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) or the Simons Collaboration on Ocean Processes and Ecology (SCOPE). These three programs have greatly increased our understanding of microbial ecology and biogeochemical cycling in the NPSG, in part by providing unparalleled access to the NPSG on oceanographic research vessels.

The Microbial Regulation of Global Biogeochemical Cycles

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192977 Year: Pages: 241 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-297-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Geography --- Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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Global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients are increasingly affected by human activities. So far, modeling has been central for our understanding of how this will affect ecosystem functioning and the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. These models have been forced to adopt a reductive approach built on the flow of carbon and nutrients between pools that are difficult or even impossible to verify with empirical evidence. Furthermore, while some of these models include the response in physiology, ecology and biogeography of primary producers to environmental change, the microbial part of the ecosystem is generally poorly represented or lacking altogether. The principal pool of carbon and nutrients in soil is the organic matter. The turnover of this reservoir is governed by microorganisms that act as catalytic converters of environmental conditions into biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. The dependency of this conversion activity on individual environmental conditions such as pH, moisture and temperature has been frequently studied. On the contrary, only rarely have the microorganisms involved in carrying out the processes been identified, and one of the biggest challenges for advancing our understanding of biogeochemical processes is to identify the microorganisms carrying out a specific set of metabolic processes and how they partition their carbon and nutrient use. We also need to identify the factors governing these activities and if they result in feedback mechanisms that alter the growth, activity and interaction between primary producers and microorganisms. By determining how different groups of microorganisms respond to individual environmental conditions by allocating carbon and nutrients to production of biomass, CO2 and other products, a mechanistic as well as quantitative understanding of formation and decomposition of organic matter, and the production and consumption of greenhouse gases, can be achieved. In this Research Topic, supported by the Swedish research councils' programme "Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in a Changing Landscape" (BECC), we intend to promote this alternative framework to address how cycling of carbon and nutrients will be altered in a changing environment from the first-principle mechanisms that drive them – namely the ecology, physiology and biogeography of microorganisms – and on up to emerging global biogeochemical patterns. This novel and unconventional approach has the potential to generate fresh insights that can open up new horizons and stimulate rapid conceptual development in our basic understanding of the regulating factors for global biogeochemical cycles. The vision for the research topic is to facilitate such progress by bringing together leading scientists as proponents of several disciplines. By bridging Microbial Ecology and Biogeochemistry, connecting microbial activities at the micro-scale to carbon fluxes at the ecosystem-scale, and linking above- and belowground ecosystem functioning, we can leap forward from the current understanding of the global biogeochemical cycles.

Modeling the Plankton - Enhancing the Integration of Biological Knowledge and Mechanistic Understanding

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453658 Year: Pages: 228 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-365-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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In light of climate change and allied changes to marine ecosystems, mathematical models have become an important tool to examine processes and predict phenomena from local through to global scales. In recent years model studies, laboratory experiments and a better ecological understanding of the pelagic ecosystem have enabled advancements on fundamental challenges in oceanography, including marine production, biodiversity and anticipation of future conditions in the ocean. This research topic presents a number of studies that investigate functionally diverse organism in a dynamic ocean through diverse and novel modeling approaches.

Polar Microbiology: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

ISBN: 9783038421757 9783038421764 Year: Pages: 466 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-12 11:49:37
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Hydro-Ecological Modeling

ISBN: 9783038422396 9783038422129 Year: Pages: XIV, 322 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-02 16:08:50
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Water is not only an interesting object to be studied on its own, it also is an important component driving almost all ecological processes occurring in our landscapes. Plant growth depends on soil water content, as well is nutrient turnover by microbes. Water shapes the environment by erosion and sedimentation. Species occur or are lost depending on hydrological conditions, and many infectious diseases are water-borne.Modeling the complex interactions of water and ecosystem processes requires the prediction of hydrological fluxes and stages on the one side and the coupling of the ecosystem process model on the other. While much effort has been given to the development of the hydrological model theory in recent decades, we have just begun to explore the difficulties that occur when coupled model applications are being set up.

Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions of Gases and Particles

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Book Series: Springer Earth System Sciences ISSN: 21979596 ISBN: 9783642256424 9783642256431 Year: Pages: 315 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-25643-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Business and Management --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2014-02-10 16:18:02
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The oceans and atmosphere interact through various processes, including the transfer of momentum, heat, gases and particles. In this book leading international experts come together to provide a state-of-the-art account of these exchanges and their role in the Earth-system, with particular focus on gases and particles. Chapters in the book cover: i) the ocean-atmosphere exchange of short-lived trace gases; ii) mechanisms and models of interfacial exchange (including transfer velocity parameterisations); iii) ocean-atmosphere exchange of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide; iv) ocean atmosphere exchange of particles and v) current and future data collection and synthesis efforts. The scope of the book extends to the biogeochemical responses to emitted / deposited material and interactions and feedbacks in the wider Earth-system context. This work constitutes a highly detailed synthesis and reference; of interest to higher-level university students (Masters, PhD) and researchers in ocean-atmosphere interactions and related fields (Earth-system science, marine / atmospheric biogeochemistry / climate). Production of this book was supported and funded by the EU COST Action 735 and coordinated by the International SOLAS (Surface Ocean- Lower Atmosphere Study) project office.

Understanding and Managing Emerald Ash Borer Impacts on Ash Forests

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783038971641 9783038971658 Year: Pages: 296 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-165-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-12 11:19:31
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The emerald ash borer (EAB) is rapidly spreading throughout Eastern North America and devastating ecosystems where ash is a component tree. This rapid and sustained loss of ash trees has already resulted in ecological impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and is projected to be even more severe as EAB invades ash dominated wetlands of the western Great Lakes region. We propose a Special Issue that will address current research documenting ecological impacts of EAB in forest ecosystems, as well as management approaches to mitigate those impacts. Prospective authors are invited to contribute original researches to this Special Issue of Forests. Topics may include, but are not limited to: Managements of ash forests and potential replacements, nutrient and vegetation dynamics, greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration and cycling, hydrologic impacts, and pre or post-infestation silvicultural approaches or management strategies.

Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry of Precious Metals

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ISBN: 9783038973461 9783038973478 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-347-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biotechnology --- Ecology --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-20 10:57:53
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Precious metals continue to have economic and sociocultural importance, as their usage evolves and diversifies over time. Today, the industrial application of precious metals is increasing with the development of scientific and technological innovations. Especially, the biological cycling of these metals is receiving more and more attention, as the microbiota may be key to a range of issues regarding exploration, ore-processing and metallurgy, and the processing of electron waste. In this volume, we focus on enhancing the fundamental understanding of the biological processes that drive noble metal cycling and examine how this knowledge may be turned into biotechnolical applications.

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