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P-type ATPases in Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457113 Year: Pages: 256 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-711-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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P-type ATPases are a large group of evolutionary related ion and lipid pumps that have in common that they catalyze a transient phosphorylated intermediate at a key conserved aspartate residue within the pump in order to function. While all the P-type ATPases perform active transport across cellular membranes, they have different transport specificities and serve diverse physiological functions. The ion pumps of the P-type ATPase family create electrochemical gradients that are essential for transepithelial transport, nutrient uptake and membrane potential. They mediate cellular signaling and provide the ligands for metalloenzymes. Phospholipid flippases, also members of the P-type ATPase superfamily, regulate the asymmetric lipid distribution across the lipid bilayer and are critical for the biogenesis of cell membranes. Since all of these ATPases serve fundamental cellular functions, malfunctioning is associated with various pathophysiological processes and dysfunctions of P-type ATPases are known to contribute to cardiovascular, neurological, renal and metabolic diseases. However, with the ever growing knowledge about the diseases associated with the malfunction of P-type ATPases, they are also promising targets for future drug development. In eukaryotes the most prominent examples of P-type ATPases are the Na+,K+-ATPase (sodium pump), the H+-ATPase (proton pump), the H+,K+-ATPase (proton-potassium pump) and the Ca2+-ATPases (calcium pumps). Mutations in the alpha2 and alpha3 subunit of Na,K-ATPase have been associated with neurological diseases, including rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism, familial hemiplegic migraine and alternating hemiplegia of childhood. Dysregulation and loss of expression of Na,K-ATPase and plasma membrane Ca-ATPases may be involved in cancer progression. Malfunctioning of the Ca-ATPases is also thought to contribute to hypertension and neurodegenerative diseases and mutations can cause cardiac dysfunction, deafness, hypertension and cerebellar ataxia. Mutations in the SERCA calcium pumps can cause heart failure, Brody myopathy and Darier disease and mutations in the Cu-ATPase genes cause Menkes and Wilson disease. Deficiencies in phospholipid flippases have been linked to progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, obesity, diabetes, hearing loss and neurological diseases.

Current Topics in Ionizing Radiation Research

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ISBN: 9789535101963 Year: Pages: 856 DOI: 10.5772/2027 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Since the discovery of X rays by Roentgen in 1895, the ionizing radiation has been extensively utilized in a variety of medical and industrial applications. However people have shortly recognized its harmful aspects through inadvertent uses. Subsequently people experienced nuclear power plant accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima, which taught us that the risk of ionizing radiation is closely and seriously involved in the modern society. In this circumstance, it becomes increasingly important that more scientists, engineers and students get familiar with ionizing radiation research regardless of the research field they are working. Based on this idea, the book ""Current Topics in Ionizing Radiation Research"" was designed to overview the recent achievements in ionizing radiation research including biological effects, medical uses and principles of radiation measurement.

State of the Art in Nano-bioimaging

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ISBN: 9781789232943 9781789232950 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70076 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Nano-bioimaging is a real-time observation method for the study of biological processes in subcellular structures and entire cells. This technique aims to interfere as little as possible with life processes using nanoscale materials and probes. In this method, nanoscale photon source is often used for imaging, and 3D structure of the observed specimen is studied in detail without physical interference. Over the last decade, further boost in bioimaging has led to increase the nano-bioimaging impact that includes many improvements in the data analysis method, image processing, and molecular imaging technology. However, to increase the usage of nano-bioimaging, several developments in the field of diagnosis accuracy, photobleaching prevention, and controlling of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) must be achieved. The purpose of this book is to provide a perspective on the current status of nano-bioimaging technologies.

Nuclear Medicine Physics

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ISBN: 9781838802837 9781838802844 9781838805005 Year: Pages: 108 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.75255 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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This book offers the foundation for the education and research of medical physicists starting their university studies in the field of the physics of nuclear medicine. The book is equally beneficial to those wishing to advance their knowledge in this area. It provides, in the form of a syllabus, a comprehensive overview of basic medical physics knowledge required in modern nuclear medicine. It offers a guide to nuclear medicine, including radionuclides in medicine for diagnosis, staging of disease, therapy, and monitoring the response of a disease process. This book comprehensively covers a broad range of topics, including but not limited to radioactivity and radionuclide generators, operation of non-imaging and imaging instruments, radiation biology, and radiopharmacy.

Nanomaterials - Toxicity and Risk Assessment

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ISBN: 9789535121435 9789535142195 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.5772/59381 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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This edited book, Nanomaterials - Toxicity and Risk Assessment, is a collection of current research and information on numerous advances on the toxicity and hazardous effects of nanomaterials, including theoretical and experimental approaches as well as nanotechnology applications in the field of medicine, pharmacology, and the manufacture of nanoscale materials. Based on the large number of nanomaterial applications, a careful understanding of the associated systemic and local toxicity is critically required.

Biosensors - Micro and Nanoscale Applications

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ISBN: 9789535121732 Year: Pages: 468 DOI: 10.5772/59391 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Nowadays, the implementation of novel technological platforms in biosensor-based developments is primarily directed to the miniaturization of analytical systems and lowering the limits of detection. Rapid scientific and technological progress enables the application of biosensors for the online detection of minute concentrations of different chemical compounds in a wide selection of matrixes and monitoring extremely low levels of biomarkers even in living organisms and individual cells. This book, including 16 chapters, characterizes the present state of the art and prospective options for micro and nanoscale activities in biosensors construction and applications.

The Delivery of Nanoparticles

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ISBN: 9789535106159 9789535142942 Year: Pages: 554 DOI: 10.5772/2647 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:09

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Nanoparticle is a general challenge for today's technology and the near future observations of science. Nanoparticles cover mostly all types of sciences and manufacturing technologies. The properties of this particle are flying over today scientific barriers and have passed the limitations of conventional sciences. This is the reason why nanoparticles have been evaluated for the use in many fields. InTech publisher and the contributing authors of this book in nanoparticles are all overconfident to invite all scientists to read this new book. The book's potential was held until it was approached by the art of exploring the most advanced research in the field of nano-scale particles, preparation techniques and the way of reaching their destination. 25 reputable chapters were framed in this book and there were alienated into four altered sections; Toxic Nanoparticles, Drug Nanoparticles, Biological Activities and Nano-Technology.

Biological Information:New Perspectives

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9789814508728 Year: Pages: 584 DOI: 10.1142/8818 Language: English
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 03:49:23
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In the spring of 2011, a diverse group of scientists gathered at Cornell University to discuss their research into the nature and origin of biological information. This symposium brought together experts in information theory, computer science, numerical simulation, thermodynamics, evolutionary theory, whole organism biology, developmental biology, molecular biology, genetics, physics, biophysics, mathematics, and linguistics. This volume presents new research by those invited to speak at the conference.The contributors to this volume use their wide-ranging expertise in the area of biological information to bring fresh insights into the many explanatory difficulties associated with biological information. These authors raise major challenges to the conventional scientific wisdom, which attempts to explain all biological information exclusively in terms of the standard mutation/selection paradigm.Several clear themes emerged from these research papers: 1) Information is indispensable to our understanding of what life is; 2) Biological information is more than the material structures that embody it; 3) Conventional chemical and evolutionary mechanisms seem insufficient to fully explain the labyrinth of information that is life. By exploring new perspectives on biological information, this volume seeks to expand, encourage, and enrich research into the nature and origin of biological information.Contents:Session One — Information Theory & Biology: Introductory Comments (Robert J Marks II):Biological Information — What is It? (Werner Gitt, Robert Compton and Jorge Fernandez)A General Theory of Information Cost Incurred by Successful Search (William A Dembski, Winston Ewert and Robert J Marks II)Pragmatic Information (John W Oller, Jr)Limits of Chaos and Progress in Evolutionary Dynamics (William F Basener)Tierra: The Character of Adaptation (Winston Ewert, William A Dembski and Robert J Marks II)Multiple Overlapping Genetic Codes Profoundly Reduce the Probability of Beneficial Mutation (George Montañez, Robert J Marks II, Jorge Fernandez and John C Sanford)Entropy, Evolution and Open Systems (Granville Sewell)Information and Thermodynamics in Living Systems (Andy C McIntosh)Session Two — Biological Information and Genetic Theory: Introductory Comments (John C Sanford):Not Junk After All: Non-Protein-Coding DNA Carries Extensive Biological Information (Jonathan Wells)Can Purifying Natural Selection Preserve Biological Information? (Paul Gibson, John R Baumgardner, Wesley H Brewer and John C Sanford)Selection Threshold Severely Constrains Capture of Beneficial Mutations (John C Sanford, John R Baumgardner and Wesley H Brewer)Using Numerical Simulation to Test the “Mutation-Count” Hypothesis (Wesley H Brewer, John R Baumgardner and John C Sanford)Can Synergistic Epistasis Halt Mutation Accumulation? Results from Numerical Simulation (John R Baumgardner, Wesley H Brewer and John C Sanford)Computational Evolution Experiments Reveal a Net Loss of Genetic Information Despite Selection (Chase W Nelson and John C Sanford)Information Loss: Potential for Accelerating Natural Genetic Attenuation of RNA Viruses (Wesley H Brewer, Franzine D Smith and John C Sanford)DNA.EXE: A Sequence Comparison between the Human Genome and Computer Code (Josiah Seaman)Biocybernetics and Biosemiosis (Donald Johnson)Session Three — Theoretical Molecular Biology: Introductory Comments (Michael J Behe):An Ode to the Code: Evidence for Fine-Tuning in the Standard Codon Table (Jed C Macosko and Amanda M Smelser)A New Model of Intracellular Communication Based on Coherent, High-Frequency Vibrations in Biomolecules (L Dent)Getting There First: An Evolutionary Rate Advantage for Adaptive Loss-of-Function Mutations (Michael J Behe)The Membrane Code: A Carrier of Essential Biological Information That is Not Specified by DNA and is Inherited Apart from It (Jonathan Wells)Explaining Metabolic Innovation: Neo-Darwinism Versus Design (Douglas D Axe and Ann K Gauger)Session Four — Biological Information and Self-Organizational Complexity Theory: Introductory Comments (Bruce L Gordon):Evolution Beyond Entailing Law: The Roles of Embodied Information and Self Organization (Stuart Kauffman)Towards a General Biology: Emergence of Life and Information from the Perspective of Complex Systems Dynamics (Bruce H Weber)Readership: Academics, researchers, postgraduates and advanced undergraduates in bioinformatics. Biologists, mathematicians/statisticians, physicists and computer scientists.

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