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Textbook of Cortical Brain Stimulation

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ISBN: 9783110412628 9783110441208 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.2478/9783110412628 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-04-13 11:05:20
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Developed over the past 25 years, Cortical Brain Stimulation has emerged as a brand new, cutting-edge option for the treatment of intractable neurological and psychiatric disorders. Devoid of the mortality and disabling morbidity that may accompany deep brain stimulation, stimulating the cortex with a minimally invasive surgical approach had initially proved its worth for the treatment of Central and other Neuropathic Pain Syndromes and later for Parkinson Disease, Dystonia, Stroke and Coma rehabilitation, Epilepsy, Depression and Tinnitus. Written by many of the pioneers in the field, this authoritative treatise is a comprehensive presentation - from surgical details, to clinical results and mechanisms of action. It also provides the busy clinician with comparisons with non-invasive cortical stimulation techniques, such as TMS and tDCS. No other book deals with this form of brain stimulation. The clinician will harness the power of this formidable new therapeutic option, which is being further refined with the advent of closed-loop stimulation.Dr Canavero deciphered the genesis of the central pain syndromes, introduced extradural cortical stimulation for Parkinson Disease and the vegetative state and co-introduced extradural cortical stimulation for stroke rehabilitation. He made worldwide news in 2008 for partially restoring consciousness in two vegetative patients, in 2013 for proposing the HEAVEN/GEMINI protocol for human head transplantation and in 2014 for pushing brain stimulation in the setting of criminal psychopathy. His books include: Central Pain Syndrome, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2011 (2nd ed.), Textbook of therapeutic cortical stimulation, Nova Sci, 2009 and two books in Italian on human sexual behavior.

Non-invasive Brain Stimulation in Neurology and Psychiatry

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451340 Year: Pages: 207 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-134-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Brain stimulation techniques, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS), modify brain function through interaction with multiple neurotransmitters and networks. The implementation of these non-invasive stimulation techniques in physiology, behavioral studies, with modelling or functional imaging has provided an outstanding causal link between brain structure and function and helped identify neural networks mediating cognitive or motor function. The potential efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation procedures for the management of specific symptoms in diverse neurological and psychiatric conditions has been tested in the past decade or so. For example, repetitive TMS over prefrontal areas has been extensively investigated as a treatment for patients with medication-resistant depression and has been shown to be associated with improvement of mood. Similarly, non-invasive stimulation techniques have been applied to various symptoms of Parkinson’s disease such as bradykinesia and dyskinesias, with variables degrees of success reported. However, attempts to expand previously observed clinical improvements to other neurological disorders (e.g. Tourette’s syndrome, autism, epilepsy) has been controversial. In trying to bypass potential confounding elements, researchers aim to target neural populations altered in disease to either increase or decrease their corrupted baseline activity. In addition, a complementary approach is to extend stimulation protocols that results enhanced behavior in healthy participants. One of the potential limitation of this latter strategy has been that most of the protocols evaluated in healthy participants have been tested in populations that are not comparable to the patient populations. This Frontiers Research Topic on non-invasive brain stimulation and enhancement of function seeks to combine contributions from researchers who found non-invasive brain stimulation induced improvement of either a motoric, cognitive or behavioral nature investigated behaviorally, physiologically or using brain imaging techniques in clinical populations. Investigation of the relation between enhancement of function in healthy populations and improvement of symptoms in patients with neurological or psychiatric disorders needs further consideration. Critically, the topic will be centered on the following topics to expand current knowledge: • selection of adequate stimulation protocols, including simple questions such as whether TMS or TDCS is more efficacious for inducing enhancement of function in brain disease; • methodological issues such as optimizing cortical targets and the use of good control groups; • which symptoms to tackle in different brain disorders. For example, is it possible to de-activate hyperactive cortical regions present in Parkinson disease to induce clinical amelioration? Do protocols used in healthy populations produce similar predictable effects in parkinsonian persons?; • potential of using stimulation protocols in combination with pharmacological or cognitive therapy; • the use of appropriate clinical, behavioral, physiological and imaging tools to measure brain plastic changes. Consideration about possible multi-centre clinical trials: feasibility, problems and authorization pathways. Studies or reviews on cost-effectiveness. The aim of this topic is to determine which disease signs are treatable with non-invasive brain stimulation and available protocols to interfere with altered brain systems and produce enhanced motor and behavior outcomes. This Frontiers Research Topic will be important in identifying new avenues of clinical research for rapid advances in the field.

Mind-Brain Plasticity and Rehabilitation of Cognitive Functions: What Techniques Have Been Proven Effective?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451876 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-187-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Rehabilitation of cognitive functions is a primary goal in neurological and psychiatric settings. Cognitive treatments include individual and group exercises, as well as the use of computer programs and virtual reality. Besides, ongoing studies have been examining the clinical usefulness of non-invasive cerebral cortex stimulation in increasing the efficacy of cognitive protocols. Cognitive rehabilitation is based on neuroplasticity and affects brain morphological and physiological responses by integration of behavioral and cognitive changes. The brain correlates of rehabilitation-induced modifications can be investigated through magnetic resonance imaging, both at structural and functional macro-levels. Animal research can integrate such information providing data on axonal regrowth and reshaping of synaptic connectivity in response to treatment. Animal models of neurological and psychiatric conditions have been developed, and preclinical test batteries for the assessment of cognitive functions in animal models of such conditions have been created. The question is then: how does rehabilitation drive reorganization at the neuronal level? The focus of this Research Topic is on rehabilitation-induced cognitive and neural plasticity in adult humans and animal models. The goal is to provide an integrated picture highlighting what techniques have been proven to be effective.

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Applications

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ISBN: 9783038425380 9783038425397 Year: Pages: VIII, 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-539-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-27 12:48:49
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The issue is dedicated to applications of Deep Brain Stimulation and, in this issue, we would like to highlight the new developments that are taking place in the field. These include the application of new technology to existing indications, as well as ‘new’ indications. We would also like to highlight the most recent clinical evidence from international multicentre trials. The issue will include articles relating to movement disorders, pain, psychiatric indications, as well as emerging indications that are not yet accompanied by clinical evidence. We look forward to your expert contribution to this exciting issue.

Novel insights in rehabilitation of neglect, 2nd Edition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194094 Year: Pages: 269 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-409-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Hemispatial neglect is the failure to report, respond to, or orient to novel or meaningful stimuli presented in the contralesional visual field. It constitutes one of the most invalidating neurological disorders that can occur after stroke. It is therefore important to treat neglect as adequate as possible and much of the research dedicated to neglect therefore focuses on rehabilitation. In this special topic, you will find 29 articles on the rehabilitation of neglect. This Research Topic has opened new perspectives, and has given us an indication of where the field is going. Although some of the current rehabilitation techniques have proven to be beneficial, there is limited agreement on the most valuable technique or the mechanisms underlying the ameliorating effects.

Online and Offline Modulators of Motor Learning

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451661 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-166-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Both the acquisition of new and the modification of previously acquired motor skills are necessary to achieve optimal levels of motor performance in everyday functioning as well as to attain expert performance levels that are evident in sports and arts. A multitude of factors have been shown to influence the various stages of the learning process, from the acquisition (i.e., motor memory encoding) to the consolidation and subsequent retention of a skill. These factors, or modulators, can affect learning through online processes taking place during practice of a new motor skill or through offline processes occurring in the absence of task performance (i.e., after training sessions). Although much of the recent research from various disciplines has placed an increased emphasis on identifying factors that can influence the motor learning process, we lack an integrated understanding of online and offline determinants of motor skill behaviours. Potential motor learning modulators include, but are certainly not limited to, stress, anxiety, attention, executive functioning, social interaction, stimulus-response mapping, training schedule/regimen, learning environment, vigilance/consciousness states including sleep, wakefulness or meditation, brain stimulation, interference as well as resting state brain connectivity. Pathological and non-pathological (i.e., development or aging) changes in the brain can also be conceptualized as potential modulators. The aim of this Research Topic is to bridge research from the cognitive, sensory, motor and psychological domains using various behavioural paradigms and neuroimaging techniques in order to provide a comprehensive view of the online and offline modulators of motor learning, and how they interact to influence motor performance. Critically, the overarching goal is to gain a better understanding of how motor behaviour can be optimized. We believe that merging research from diverse neuroscientific communities would contribute to fulfilling this goal and potentially highlight possible shared neurophysiological mechanisms influencing motor learning.

Revisiting the Effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Brain Stimulation for Cognition: Evidence, Challenges, and Open Questions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453252 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-325-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The aim of this Frontiers Research Topic is to assemble a collection of papers from experts in the field of non-invasive brain stimulation that will discuss (1) the strength of the evidence regarding the potential of tDCS to modulate different aspects of cognition; (2) methodological caveats associated with the technique that may account for the variability in the reported findings; and (3) a set of challenges and future directions for the use of tDCS that can determine its potential as a reliable method for cognitive rehabilitation, maintenance, or enhancement.

The Clinical and Ethical Practice of Neuromodulation - Deep Brain Stimulation and Beyond

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453733 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-373-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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euromodulation is among the fastest-growing areas of medicine, involving many diverse specialties and affecting hundreds of thousands of patients with numerous disorders worldwide. It can briefly be described as the science of how electrical, chemical, and mechanical interventions can modulate the nervous system function. A prominent example of neuromodulation is deep brain stimulation (DBS), an intervention that reflects a fundamental shift in the understanding of neurological and psychiatric diseases: namely as resulting from a dysfunctional activity pattern in a defined neuronal network that can be normalized by targeted stimulation. The application of DBS has grown remarkably and more than 130,000 patients worldwide have obtained a DBS intervention in the past 30 years—most of them for treating movement disorders. This Frontiers Research Topics provides an overview on the current discussion beyond basic research in DBS and other brain stimulation technologies. Researchers from various disciplines, who are working on broader clinical, ethical and social issues related to DBS and related neuromodulation technologies, have contributed to this research topic.

The frontiers of clinical research on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in Neuropsychiatry

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192878 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-287-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation intervention that induces changes in cortical activity and excitability according to the parameters of stimulation. TDCS effects have been reported since the 1800s with the development of the galvanic cell, although more systematic research has been conducted only from 1950-1970 and then from 1998 onwards. At the present time, most tDCS studies have been conducted in healthy volunteers, proving the properties of tDCS as a technique that induces long-lasting, polarity-dependent changes on specific brain areas. In addition, some studies have applied tDCS in selected neuropsychiatric samples, as to investigate its therapeutic effects, obtaining mixed albeit mostly positive results. Using tDCS in clinical practice could bring enormous gains for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric disorders, as tDCS is a portable, non-expensive and straightforward therapy, being therefore a putative candidate as an add-on or substitutive therapy for pharmacological treatments. However, there is still a gap between tDCS basic and clinical research, as it is still unknown whether and how the potent neuromodulatory effects observed after one tDCS session can be carried over for several weeks; therefore proving that tDCS is also a reliable clinical tool. In addition, another gap is observed in tDCS translational research, as results obtained from experimental animal models might not be fully generalizable to neuropsychiatric disorders in humans. Thus, advancing basic and experimental tDCS research as well as tailoring the optimal parameters of stimulation represents the frontiers of tDCS use in neuropsychiatry. In this special edition, our aim is to gather studies that contribute to the proposal of using tDCS for the treatment and investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders. Desired studies include (but are not limited to) the following topics: (1) clinical trials using tDCS as a treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders. (2) original studies investigating optimal parameters for daily tDCS stimulation. (3) safety and tolerability of tDCS, including reports of unexpected and serious adverse effects. (4) comprehensive reviews of putative mechanisms of action of tDCS for neuropsychiatric disorders. (5) translational research, testing different protocols of stimulation in experimental animals. (6) modeling tDCS studies, including studies testing different tDCS devices and montages. (7) studies of cost-efficacy analysis. (8) development of appropriate study designs for tDCS. (9) development of novel employments of tDCS, such as portable, safe devices that allow domestic utilization. (10) development of more precise and focal tDCS devices. To conclude, our ultimate aim is to host studies that contribute to bridge findings from basic and experimental tDCS research with clinical practice, therefore accelerating tDCS use as a novel arsenal for treating neuropsychiatric disorders.

Levodopa-induced Dyskinesias in Parkinson's Disease: Current Knowledge and Future Scenarios

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195459 Year: Pages: 99 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-545-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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This topic aims to pool the most recent advances in the phenomenology and pathophysiology of levodopa-induced dyskinesias. The papers in this eBook have strongly contributed to reduce the gaps in our knowledge of LIDs pathogenesis.

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