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Chapter: 'Analysis of Breast Cancer Cell Invasion Using an Organotypic Culture System' from book: 3D Cell Culture: Methods and Protocols (Book chapter)

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Book Series: Methods in Molecular Biology ISSN: 1064-3745 / 1940-6029 ISBN: 9781493970193 9781493970216 Year: Volume: 1612 Pages: 13 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/9781493970216_15 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-19 15:44:38
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Metastasis is the main cause of cancer patient mortality. Local tumor invasion is a key step in metastatic dissemination whereby cancer cells dislodge from primary tumors, migrate through the peritumoral stroma and reach the circulation. This is a highly dynamic process occurring in three dimensions that involves interactions between tumor, stromal cells, and the extracellular matrix. Here we describe the organotypic culture system and its utility to study breast cancer cell invasion induced by cancer-associated fibroblasts. This is a three-dimensional model that reproduces the biochemical and physiological properties of real tissue and allows for investigating the molecular and cellular mechanisms involving tumor and its microenvironment, and their contribution to cancer cell invasion. This system provides a robust, accurate, and reproducible method for measuring cancer cell invasion and represents a valuable tool to improve the mechanistic understanding of the initial steps in metastasis.

Cardiovascular Toxicities of Breast Cancer Treatment: Emerging Issues in Cardio-Oncology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195695 Year: Pages: 83 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-569-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
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Cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the two most common causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The incidence of both cancer and cardiovascular disease increases with age. With increased life expectancy, the burden of both these diseases will increase substantially in coming years. Patients with CVD share multiple common risk factors and lifestyle behaviors in addition to frequently suffering from multiple comorbid conditions. Tobacco use, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition are all established risk factors of heart disease. Patients with diseases such as breast cancer may develop CVD from treatment, such as use of chemotherapy and RT. Effects on the heart are a potentially significant and serious clinical problem in radiation therapy treatment of breast cancer. Over the course of the past 50 years, there have been great advances in the delivery of RT due to the development of new techniques, beam energy, improvement in imaging modalities, and development of image registration strategies. It is hypothesized that cardiac damage from RT is correlated to the dose absorbed by the heart and differs between left- and right-breast radiotherapy. The damage to cardiac micro- and macro-vasculature is the pathophysiological cause of RT-related heart disease. Given the growing clinical relevance of cardio-oncology, this Frontiers in Oncology Research Topic provides a venue for disseminating focused reviews and cutting edge research in this quickly growing field. We encourage submission of original papers and reviews dealing with cardiac toxicity after breast cancer treatment, motion management to reduce cardiac exposure, imaging to evaluate potential cardiac toxicities and primary prevention of cardiac disease in the breast cancer patient.

Cancer Care Delivery and Women's Health

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453092 Year: Pages: 153 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-309-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Cancer care delivery refers to the multiple layers of the health care system that interact to affect outcomes for patients with cancer and the quality of that care. The factors included in the care delivery system that potentially alter outcomes include social dynamics, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, provider and individual behaviors. Because women’s health care has its own unique challenges, the intersection between cancer care delivery and women’s health is to be examined in this Frontiers in Oncology issue. The unique opportunities and challenges of improving the health care system for women with breast and gynecologic cancers are to be explored in depth. We will visit many topics of cancer care delivery with the unique perspective geared towards the care of women’s malignancies.

Plastic Surgery for the Oncological Patient

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199877 Year: Pages: 76 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-987-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology --- Surgery
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The develoment of plastic surgery techniques allows for preserving and reconstruction of function after resection of malignant tumors. From split thickness skin grafts to pedicled and free tissue transfer multiple techniques are at hand to restore body integrity. Sufficient soft tissue coverage allows for adjuvant radiation therapy or can cure its sequelae. Nerve, tendon and muscle transfers are used to regain motor function of the extremities. Even large bony defects can be treated by microsurgically transferring fibula, pelvic and femoral bone. In case main vessels need to be resected reconstruction is possible with autologous and artificial grafts. By means of plastic surgery thoracic and abdominal defects can be covered so that foremost unresectable tumors become curable. Unfortunately the knowledge of these techniques is not very popular with oncologic surgeons. Therefore we suggest as a clinical topic the role of reconstructive surgery in the multimodal treatment of oncologic patients. The focus will be on different areas of the body, therefore articels for reconstructional procedures at the head, the extremities, the trunk, the thoracic wall, the breast, and the foot will be invited. Another focus will be the role of reconstructive procedures in the multimodal treatment concept consisting of radiation and chemotherapy as well. By knowing and applying the opportunities of plastic surgery the quality of live of the oncologic patient can be significantly improved.

AR Signaling in Human Malignancies: Prostate Cancer and Beyond

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ISBN: 9783038427407 9783038427391 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-739-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-16 08:45:39
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The notion that androgens and androgen receptor (AR) signaling are the hallmarks of prostate cancer oncogenesis and disease progression is generally well accepted. What is more poorly understood is the role of AR signaling in other human malignancies. This Special Issue of Cancers initially reviews the role of AR in advanced prostate cancer, and then explores the potential importance of AR signaling in other epithelial malignancies. The first few articles focus on the use of novel AR-targeting therapies in castration-resistant prostate cancer and the mechanisms of resistance to novel antiandrogens, and they also outline the interaction between AR and other cellular pathways, including PI3 kinase signaling, transcriptional regulation, angiogenesis, stromal factors, Wnt signaling, and epigenetic regulation in prostate cancer. The next several articles review the possible role of androgens and AR signaling in breast cancer, bladder cancer, salivary gland cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as the potential treatment implications of using antiandrogen therapies in these non-prostatic malignancies.

Electromagnetic Technologies for Medical Diagnostics. Fundamental Issues, Clinical Applications and Perspectives

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ISBN: 9783038976769 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-677-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The content of this Special Issue will highlight papers exploring non-commutative Fourier harmonic analysis, spectral properties of aperiodic order, the hypoelliptic heat equation, and the relativistic heat equation in the context of Information Theory and Geometric Science of Information.

Sex Hormone Receptor Signals in Human Malignancies

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ISBN: 9783039211739 / 9783039211746 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-174-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Sex steroids, including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens, are knownto have widespread physiological actions beyond the reproductive systemvia binding to the sex hormone receptors. Meanwhile, emerging evidence hasindicated that sex hormone receptor signals are involved in the outgrowth ofsome malignancies, such as prostate and breast carcinomas, as well as othersthat have not traditionally been considered as endocrine-related neoplasms. ThisSpecial Issue “Sex Hormone Receptor Signals in Human Malignancies” coversvarious aspects of the potential role of sex hormone receptors and related signalsin prostate cancer, breast cancer, and other neoplastic conditions by depictingpromising findings derived from in vitro and in vivo experiments as well as theanalyses of surgical specimens. The current observations described may thusprovide a unique insight into novel or known functions of sex hormone receptorsand related molecules.

Cancer Metabolomics 2018

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ISBN: 9783039213450 / 9783039213467 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-346-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The metabolomics approach, defined as the study of all endogenously-produced low-molecular-weight compounds, appeared as a promising strategy to define new cancer biomarkers. Information obtained from metabolomic data can help to highlight disrupted cellular pathways and, consequently, contribute to the development of new-targeted therapies and the optimization of therapeutics. Therefore, metabolomic research may be more clinically translatable than other omics approaches, since metabolites are closely related to the phenotype and the metabolome is sensitive to many factors. Metabolomics seems promising to identify key metabolic pathways characterizing features of pathological and physiological states. Thus, knowing that tumor metabolism markedly differs from the metabolism of normal cells, the use of metabolomics is ideally suited for biomarker research. Some works have already focused on the application of metabolomic approaches to different cancers, namely lung, breast and liver, using urine, exhaled breath and blood. In this Special Issue we contribute to a more complete understanding of cancer disease using metabolomics approaches.

Application of Bioinformatics in Cancers

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ISBN: 9783039217885 / 9783039217892 Year: Pages: 418 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-789-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This collection of 25 research papers comprised of 22 original articles and 3 reviews is brought together from international leaders in bioinformatics and biostatistics. The collection highlights recent computational advances that improve the ability to analyze highly complex data sets to identify factors critical to cancer biology. Novel deep learning algorithms represent an emerging and highly valuable approach for collecting, characterizing and predicting clinical outcomes data. The collection highlights several of these approaches that are likely to become the foundation of research and clinical practice in the future. In fact, many of these technologies reveal new insights about basic cancer mechanisms by integrating data sets and structures that were previously immiscible.

Keywords

comorbidity score --- mortality --- locoregionally advanced --- HNSCC --- curative surgery --- traditional Chinese medicine --- health strengthening herb --- cancer treatment --- network pharmacology --- network target --- high-throughput analysis --- brain metastases --- colorectal cancer --- KRAS mutation --- PD-L1 --- tumor infiltrating lymphocytes --- drug resistance --- gefitinib --- erlotinib --- biostatistics --- bioinformatics --- Bufadienolide-like chemicals --- molecular mechanism --- anti-cancer --- bioinformatics --- cancer --- brain --- pathophysiology --- imaging --- machine learning --- extreme learning --- deep learning --- neurological disorders --- pancreatic cancer --- TCGA --- curation --- DNA --- RNA --- protein --- single-biomarkers --- multiple-biomarkers --- cancer-related pathways --- colorectal cancer --- DNA sequence profile --- Monte Carlo --- mixture of normal distributions --- somatic mutation --- tumor --- mutable motif --- activation induced deaminase --- AID/APOBEC --- transcriptional signatures --- copy number variation --- copy number aberration --- TCGA mining --- cancer CRISPR --- firehose --- gene signature extraction --- gene loss biomarkers --- gene inactivation biomarkers --- biomarker discovery --- chemotherapy --- microarray --- ovarian cancer --- predictive model --- machine learning --- overall survival --- observed survival interval --- skin cutaneous melanoma --- The Cancer Genome Atlas --- omics --- breast cancer prognosis --- artificial intelligence --- machine learning --- decision support systems --- cancer prognosis --- independent prognostic power --- omics profiles --- histopathological imaging features --- cancer --- intratumor heterogeneity --- genomic instability --- epigenetics --- mitochondrial metabolism --- miRNAs --- cancer biomarkers --- breast cancer detection --- machine learning --- feature selection --- classification --- denoising autoencoders --- breast cancer --- feature extraction and interpretation --- concatenated deep feature --- cancer modeling --- interaction --- histopathological imaging --- clinical/environmental factors --- oral cancer --- miRNA --- bioinformatics --- datasets --- biomarkers --- TCGA --- GEO DataSets --- hormone sensitive cancers --- breast cancer --- StAR --- estrogen --- steroidogenic enzymes --- hTERT --- telomerase --- telomeres --- alternative splicing --- network analysis --- hierarchical clustering analysis --- differential gene expression analysis --- cancer biomarker --- diseases genes --- variable selection --- false discovery rate --- knockoffs --- bioinformatics --- copy number variation --- cell-free DNA --- methylation --- mutation --- next generation sequencing --- self-organizing map --- head and neck cancer --- treatment de-escalation --- HP --- molecular subtypes --- tumor microenvironment --- Bioinformatics tool --- R package --- machine learning --- meta-analysis --- biomarker signature --- gene expression analysis --- survival analysis --- functional analysis --- bioinformatics --- machine learning --- artificial intelligence --- Network Analysis --- single-cell sequencing --- circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) --- Neoantigen Prediction --- precision medicine --- Computational Immunology

Bioactive Compounds from Marine-Derived Aspergillus, Penicillium, Talaromyces and Trichoderma Species

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ISBN: 9783038979807 / 9783038979814 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-981-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The importance of bioactive natural compounds in pharmacology and other biotechnological fields has stimulated the scientific community to explore new environmental contexts and their associated microbial diversity. As the largest frontier in biological discovery, the sea represents a significant source of organisms producing novel secondary metabolites with interesting bioactivities. Of the available biological material, fungi have received increasing consideration, both due to their pervasive occurrence in varying habitats as well as their aptitude to develop symbiotic associations with higher organisms in numerous contexts. In many cases, fungal strains have been reported as the real producers of drugs originally extracted from marine plants and animals. Due to the constantly increasing number of marine-derived fungi yielding valuable bioactive products, it is now appropriate to present these findings to a recipient audience in a more organized form. This Special Issue of Marine Drugs, entitled “Bioactive Compounds from Marine-Derived Aspergillus, Penicillium, Talaromyces, and Trichoderma Species"" is specifically focused on a few genera of ascomycetous fungi which are widespread regarding marine contexts and are particularly inclined to establishing symbiotic relationships. For this project, we welcome submissions of full research papers, short notes, and review articles reporting the discovery and characterization of products showing antibiotic, antitumor, antiviral, insecticidal, antimalarial, antifouling, antioxidant, plant growth-promoting and/or resistance-inducing, as well as other less-exploited activities.

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