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Modeling and Simulation of Carbon Emission Related Issues

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ISBN: 9783039213115 9783039213122 Year: Pages: 420 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-312-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Carbon emissions reached an all-time high in 2018, when global carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels increased by about 2.7%, after a 1.6% increase in 2017. Thus, we need to pay special attention to carbon emissions and work out possible solutions if we still want to meet the targets of the Paris climate agreement. This Special Issue collects 16 carbon emissions-related papers (including 5 that are carbon tax-related) and 4 energy-related papers using various methods or models, such as the input–output model, decoupling analysis, life cycle impact analysis (LCIA), relational analysis model, generalized Divisia index model (GDIM), forecasting model, three-indicator allocation model, mathematical programming, real options model, multiple linear regression, etc. The research studies come from China, Taiwan, Brazil, Thailand, and United States. These researches involved various industries such as agricultural industry, transportation industry, power industry, tire industry, textile industry, wave energy industry, natural gas industry, and petroleum industry. Although this Special Issue does not fully solve our concerns, it still provides abundant material for implementing energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction. However, there are still many issues regarding the problems caused by global warming that require research.

Keywords

household consumption --- total carbon emissions --- CLA Model --- influence factor --- STIRPAT model --- carbon emissions --- influencing factors --- decoupling elasticity --- Generalized Divisia Index --- Tapio’s model --- household CO2 emissions (HCEs) --- per capita household CO2 emissions (PHCEs) --- input–output model --- refined oil distribution --- inventory routing problem --- hybrid genetic algorithm --- carbon emissions --- carbon tax --- decoupling analysis --- greenhouse gas emissions --- carbon footprint --- low-carbon agriculture --- causal factors --- CO2 emissions forecasting --- VARIMAX-ECM model --- sustainable development --- economic growth --- population growth --- carbon price fluctuation --- renewable energy --- real options analysis --- investment under uncertainty --- carbon emissions --- carbon tax --- activity-based costing (ABC) --- capacity expansion --- green quality management --- product-mix decision model --- mathematical programming --- long-term --- final energy consumption --- LT-ARIMAXS model --- sustainable development --- economic growth and the environment --- error correction mechanism model --- activity-based costing (ABC) --- mathematical programming --- textile industry --- green manufacturing --- Industry 4.0 --- carbon emissions --- Activity-Based Costing (ABC) --- carbon emissions --- tire industry --- carbon trading --- mathematical programming --- quotas allocation --- carbon emissions --- electric power industry --- fairness --- agricultural-related sectors --- carbon emissions --- carbon tax --- China --- power industry --- carbon emissions --- Generalized Divisia Index --- scenario forecast --- Monte Carlo method --- wave energy converter --- life cycle assessment --- energy intensity --- carbon intensity --- aircraft --- taxi time --- takeoff rate --- pushback control --- green transportation --- carbon emissions --- reducing carbon emissions --- carbon intensity target --- energy structure --- gray model (GM (1, 1)) --- generalized regression neural network (GRNN) --- Markov forecasting model --- non-linear programming --- ethylene supply --- shale gas --- non-energy uses of fossil fuels --- socio-economic scenarios --- climate change --- tea --- climate change --- sustainable agriculture --- environmental impact --- carbon footprint --- CO2 emissions --- HOMER software --- hybrid ship power systems --- Li-ion battery --- shipping --- n/a

Adopting Circular Economy Current Practices and Future Perspectives

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ISBN: 9783039283422 9783039283439 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-343-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The development of a closed-loop cycle is a necessary condition so as to develop a circular economy model as an alternative to the linear model, in order to maintain the value of products and materials for as long as possible. For this motive, the definition of the value must be demonstrated for both the environment and the economy. The presence of these analyses should be associated with the social dimension and the human component. A strong cooperation between social and technical profiles is a new challenge for all researchers. End of life of products attract a lot of attention, and the final output could be the production of technologies suitable for managing this waste.

District Heating and Cooling Networks

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ISBN: 9783039288397 / 9783039288403 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-840-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Conventional thermal power generating plants reject a large amount of energy every year. If this rejected heat were to be used through district heating networks, given prior energy valorisation, there would be a noticeable decrease in the amount of fossil fuels imported for heating. As a consequence, benefits would be experienced in the form of an increase in energy efficiency, an improvement in energy security, and a minimisation of emitted greenhouse gases. Given that heat demand is not expected to decrease significantly in the medium term, district heating networks show the greatest potential for the development of cogeneration. Due to their cost competitiveness, flexibility in terms of the ability to use renewable energy resources (such as geothermal or solar thermal) and fossil fuels (more specifically the residual heat from combustion), and the fact that, in some cases, losses to a country/region’s energy balance can be easily integrated into district heating networks (which would not be the case in a “fully electric” future), district heating (and cooling) networks and cogeneration could become a key element for a future with greater energy security, while being more sustainable, if appropriate measures were implemented. This book therefore seeks to propose an energy strategy for a number of cities/regions/countries by proposing appropriate measures supported by detailed case studies.

Modelling and Analysis of Sustainability Related Issues in New Era

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ISBN: 9783039210244 9783039210251 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-025-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The purpose of this Special Issue is to investigate topics related to sustainability issues in the new era, especially in Industry 4.0 or other new manufacturing environments. Under Industry 4.0, there have been great changes with respect to production processes, production planning and control, quality assurance, internal control, cost determination, and other management issues. Moreover, it is expected that Industry 4.0 can create positive sustainability impacts along the whole value chain. There are three pillars of sustainability, including environmental sustainability, economic sustainability, and social sustainability. This Special Issue collects 15 sustainability-related papers from various industries that use various methods or models, such as mathematical programming, activity-based costing (ABC), material flow cost accounting, fuel consumption model, artificial intelligence (AI)-based fusion model, multi-attribute decision model (MADM), and so on. These papers are related to carbon emissions, carbon tax, Industry 4.0, economic sustainability, corporate social responsibility (CSR), etc. The research objects come from China, Taiwan, Thailand, Oman, Cyprus, Germany, Austria, and Portugal. Although the research presented in this Special Issue is not exhaustive, this Special Issue provides abundant, significant research related to environmental, economic, and social sustainability. Nevertheless, there still are many research topics that require our attention to solve problems of sustainability.

Keywords

carbon tax policy --- return policy --- carbon reduction --- e-commerce platform --- carbon emissions --- cap & trade --- green production --- footwear industry --- activity-based costing (ABC) --- activity-based costing (ABC) --- industry 4.0 --- integrated mathematical programming --- product-mix decision --- theory of constraints (TOC) --- carbon tax --- small and medium enterprises --- OEE --- OECD --- manufacturing sustainability --- time study --- Industry 4.0 --- material handling systems --- agent-based control architecture --- Activity-Based Costing (ABC) --- Industry 4.0 --- tire industry --- carbon emission --- carbon tax --- mathematical programming --- sustainability --- sustainability performance --- corporate social responsibility (CSR) --- internal control --- multi-attribute decision model (MADM) --- decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) --- DANP (DEMATEL based ANP) --- VIKOR --- fuel consumption --- sustainability --- active suspension --- PID controller --- white noise --- colored noise --- long- and short-term --- greenhouse gas --- LS-ARIMAXi-ECM model --- sustainability --- economic growth --- exogenous variables --- CO2 emissions --- family business --- succession plan --- corporate characteristics --- family capital --- niche inheritance --- multi-attribute decision model (MADM) --- social sustainability --- artificial intelligence --- corporate social responsibility --- decision making --- firm value --- Activity-Based Costing (ABC) --- Industry 4.0 --- aluminum-alloy wheel industry --- mathematical programming --- Activity-Based Standard Costing (ABSC) --- Manufacturing Execution System (MES) --- Activity-Based Costing (ABC) --- Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) --- Industry 4.0 --- industrial internet of things --- digital transformation --- digital platforms --- qualitative-empirical study --- small and medium-sized enterprises --- sustainable development --- energy efficiency --- electrical appliances --- life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) --- multi-attribute value theory (MAVT) --- multi-objective optimization --- NSGAII --- sustainability --- ISO14051 --- material flow cost accounting --- n/a

Sustainable Built Environment and Urban Growth Management

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ISBN: 9783039281862 9783039281879 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-187-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Nowadays, the sustainable built environment planning in most cities has come to a turning point as the growth in traffic and population has become a serious concern and put tremendous pressure on both the environment and people in these cities. It is therefore important to find new ways or lifestyles—such as compact city, transit-oriented development (TOD) formulations—that are more flexible, inclusive, and sustainable. Furthermore, for the sustainable built environment and urban growth management, not only should the growth management principles—which include smart growth, sustainable growth, and inclusive growth—be taken into account but innovative/smart planning strategies—such as mixed use design, green transport, and new urbanism—are also utilized in planning sustainable built environments in order to prevent the urban sprawl development that has occurred.

Keywords

construction materials --- green supply chain --- integrated carbon policy --- interactive strategy --- low carbon --- CO2 emissions --- transport --- urban block --- urban design --- ecological well-being changes --- rural-urban land conversion --- transformation factors --- urban residents --- rural residents --- China --- renovation extent --- energy retrofitting --- rent affordability --- tenure --- energy performance certificate --- decision support --- embodied environmental impact --- apartment building --- major building material --- life-cycle assessment --- place attachment --- commercial types --- commercial activities --- social bonding --- physical activities --- resilience quantification --- resilience engineering --- multiple threat assessment --- urban form --- Maximum Likelihood Classification --- Support Vector Machines --- Artificial Neural Networks --- significant transitions --- urban growth --- Nayarit (Mexico) --- behavior --- built environment --- green tourism --- intention --- sustainability --- environmentally responsible interior design --- sustainable interior design --- environmental activation of interior elements --- indoor environment quality --- resource use --- energy use --- interior space utilization --- buildings --- sharing --- digitalization --- social performance --- social performance evaluation --- fuzzy analytical hierarchy process --- empirical study --- driving factors --- farmland price-value distortion --- GIS --- price:value ratio --- quantile regression --- spatial spectrum --- green belt --- urban growth --- land cover --- urban living environment --- climate change --- surface temperature --- air quality --- atmospheric concentration --- conservation --- sustainable use --- urban growth management --- sustainable built environment --- quality of life (QoL) --- smart city &amp --- big data

Sustainable Development and Higher Education Institutions: Acting with a purpose

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039219049 9783039219056 Year: Pages: 320 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-905-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Education
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Higher education institutions (HEIs) have a unique role and responsibility for the future and for driving the development of a sustainable society. HEIs are charged with the task of fostering sustainability in the leaders of tomorrow, developing solutions and methods for addressing a sustainable future and ensuring that knowledge is contributed to society. HEIs must also ensure that their everyday operations and practices are consistent with a sustainable future, and that they work toward holistically integrating sustainability into both the mission of a university and its daily tasks. This Special Issue builds on papers presented during the 2018 International Sustainable Campus Network Conference and also includes other contributions. The articles reflect the many aspects of sustainability in higher education institutions and illustrate innovation in approach, outcomes, and impact. The papers cover a range of perspectives on sustainability both on and around campuses. These include organization and management issues, networking and city partnership themes, and metrics and indicators related to sustainable development goals. The Special Issue also includes papers on education, student involvement, and gender issues. Select articles include results from surveys and desktop research; others depict approaches on experimentation, living labs, and action research.

Keywords

sustainability --- cities --- universities --- city–university partnerships --- sustainability solutions --- capacity-building --- water bottle refill stations --- campus sustainability --- willingness to pay --- contingent valuation method --- willingness to use --- SDGs --- agenda 2030 --- higher education --- responsible science --- grand challenges --- keyword search --- research database --- interdisciplinarity --- university cooperation --- sustainable development goals and universities --- community partnership --- higher education --- participatory action research --- prefigurative politics --- sustainability --- undergraduate --- equal opportunities --- academic career --- sustainable development --- gender --- age --- discrimination --- leaky pipeline --- sustainability --- university living lab --- management model --- smart city --- living lab --- sustainability --- sustainable energy --- sustainable environment --- wellbeing --- higher education institution --- networks --- sustainability --- collaboration --- interdisciplinarity --- transdisciplinarity --- learning --- innovation --- whole institution approach --- sustainable university --- public university --- macro-universities --- institutional design --- global south --- Mexico --- UNAM --- sustainability --- transportation --- sustainable modes of transportation --- university campus --- EMU --- sustainable development --- higher education --- impacts --- sustainability assessment --- sustainability assessment tools --- higher education institutions --- sustainability indicators --- sustainability reporting --- education for sustainable development (ESD) --- carbon footprint --- CO2 emissions --- air travel --- environmental footprint mitigation --- education for sustainable development --- academic organizational change --- transformative learning --- behavioral change --- SDGs --- regenerative approach --- university --- barriers to change --- change drivers --- critical case study --- education for sustainability (EfS) --- faculty empowerment --- higher education institutions --- organizational change --- sustainable development in higher education institutions (SD in HEI) --- sustainable development goals --- SDGs --- higher education institutions --- sustainability in higher education --- agent of change --- curriculum innovation --- sustainability course inventory --- student engagement --- area development --- campus development --- circularity --- circular economy --- sustainability --- cities´ decarbonization --- European Union --- zero carbon cities --- smart cities --- circular economy --- governance --- social innovation --- Higher Education Institutions --- Education for Sustainable Development --- Campus --- Sustainable Development Goals --- Research

Disturbance Effects on Soil Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Forest Ecosystems

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ISBN: 9783039286669 / 9783039286676 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-667-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Forest ecosystems are often disturbed by agents such as harvesting, fire, wind, insects and diseases, and acid deposition, with differing intensities and frequencies. Such disturbances can markedly affect the amount, form, and stability of soil organic carbon in, and the emission of greenhouse gases, including CO2, CH4, and N2O from, forest ecosystems. It is vitally important that we improve our understanding of the impact of different disturbance regimes on forest soil carbon dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions to guide our future research, forest management practices, and policy development. This Special Issue provides an important update on the disturbance effects on soil carbon and greenhouse gas emissions in forest ecosystems in different climate regions.

Keywords

carbon stock changes --- forest --- greenhouse gas inventory --- IPCC --- South Korea --- greenhouse gas emission --- soil respiration --- coastal wetlands --- anthropogenic effect --- CO2 production and diffusion --- soil properties --- CO2 emission --- surface soil layer --- forest soils --- autotrophic respiration --- heterotrophic respiration --- CO2 effluxes --- decomposition --- forest disturbance --- tree mortality --- storm damage --- insect outbreak --- land use types --- soil organic carbon --- soil total nitrogen --- N addition --- soil respiration --- microbe --- subtropical forest --- soil organic carbon --- soil microbial residue --- forest conversion --- natural forest --- assisted natural regeneration --- plantation --- CO2 --- CH4 --- N2O --- soil --- biochar --- sensitivity --- temperature --- stoichiometric ratios --- landform --- rocky desertification --- karst graben basin --- warming --- nitrogen --- greenhouse gas --- soil characteristics --- microbial properties --- soil quality --- successive planting --- generation --- stand age --- clear-cutting --- Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr --- biochar --- Camellia oleifera --- DCD --- nitrification inhibitor --- nitrous oxide --- calcareous soil --- plum plantation ages --- organic carbon mineralization --- fitting parameters --- organic carbon accumulation --- karst graben basin --- land use pattern --- bacterial community --- next-generation sequencing --- subtropical forest --- calcareous soils --- red soils --- soil CO2 --- carbon source–sink --- CH4 emissions --- CO2 emissions --- climate change mitigation --- global change --- land-use change --- N2O emissions --- soil carbon sequestration

Ironmaking and Steelmaking

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039213290 9783039213306 Year: Pages: 464 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-330-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Steel is a critical material in our societies and will remain an important one for a long time into the future. In the last two decades, the world steel industry has gone through drastic changes and this is predicted to continue in the future. The Asian countries (e.g. China, India) have been dominant in the production of steel creating global over-capacity, while the steel industry in the developed countries have made tremendous efforts to reinforce its global leadership in process technology and product development, and remain sustainable and competitive. The global steel industry is also facing various grand challenges in strict environmental regulation, new energy and materials sources, and ever-increasing customer requirements for high quality steel products, which has been addressed accordingly by the global iron and steel community. This Special Issue, “Ironmaking and Steelmaking”, released by the journal Metals, published 33 high quality articles from the international iron and steel community, covering the state-of-the-art of the ironmaking and steelmaking processes. This includes fundamental understanding, experimental investigation, pilot plant trials, industrial applications and big data utilization in the improvement and optimization of existing processes, and research and development in transformative technologies. It is hoped that the creation of this special issue as a scientific platform will help drive the iron and steel community to build a sustainable steel industry.

Keywords

ironmaking --- microwaves --- carbothermal reduction --- iron oxides --- emission spectrum --- ore-carbon briquette --- CO–CO2 atmosphere --- simulation --- re-oxidation --- reduction --- electroslag cladding --- high speed steel --- ductile cast iron --- composite roll --- bonding interface --- high-phosphorus iron ore --- fluorapatite --- carbothermal reduction --- vaporization dephosphorization --- iron ore pellets --- compressive strength (CS) --- prediction model --- artificial neural network --- principal component analysis --- crystallization behaviors --- crystallization rate --- anosovite crystals --- silicate crystals --- titanium slag --- blast furnace --- copper stave --- hydrogen attack --- slag crust --- heat-affected zone --- high heat input welding --- Ca deoxidation --- inclusion control --- intragranular acicular ferrite --- concentrate --- iron ore --- agglomerate --- structure --- phase analysis --- Mg deoxidation --- inclusions --- Al addition --- high-heat-input welding --- heat-affected zone --- toughness --- shot peening --- Barkhausen noise --- crystallite size --- carbon composite pellet --- direct reduction --- shrinkage --- kinetics --- rotary hearth furnace --- hydrogen plasma --- smelting reduction --- HPSR --- iron oxide --- plasma arc --- ionization degree --- sulfur distribution ratio --- liquid area --- carbon-saturated iron --- phosphate capacity --- sulfide capacity --- phosphorus distribution ratio --- sulfur distribution ratio --- evaluation of coupling relationship --- secondary refining process, CaO–based slags --- iron sulfate --- TG analysis --- thermal treatment --- iron oxide --- kinetics --- activation energy --- high-aluminum iron ore --- synergistic reduction --- high-manganese iron ore --- hercynite --- fayalite --- flow velocity --- casting speed --- gas flow rate --- flow pattern --- continuous casting --- Cr recovery --- self-reduction briquette --- reaction mechanism --- mold flux --- low fluorine --- internal crack --- surface roughness --- slag film --- vanadium titano-magnetite --- gas-based reduction --- carbon monoxide --- hydrogen --- and nitrogen --- kinetics --- pellet size --- liquid steel --- non-contact measurement --- oxides --- steel-making --- blast furnace --- solid flow --- cold experiment --- direct element method --- Wilcox–Swailes coefficient --- viscosity --- BaO --- CaO/Al2O3 ratio --- modified NPL model --- ultrafine particles exposure --- steelmaking factory --- chemical composition --- devolatilization --- torrefied biomass --- bio-coal --- volatile matter --- iso-conversional method --- Al-TRIP steel --- surface depression --- cracks --- non-metallic inclusion --- mold flux --- reactivity --- hot metal pre-treatment --- desiliconisation --- dephosphorisation --- solid and gaseous oxygen --- fork --- flat steel --- inclusions --- 33MnCrTiB --- slag --- carbon dioxide --- injection --- blast furnace --- converter --- combustion --- oxygen steelmaking --- refining kinetics --- slag formation --- penetration theory --- oxygen blast furnace --- COREX --- static process model --- integrated steel plant --- material flow --- energy consumption --- CO2 emissions --- oil-pipeline steel --- Ca-treatment --- non-metallic inclusions --- electrolytic extraction --- corrosion --- n/a

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