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Untersuchungen zur Herstellung geträgerter mono- und bimetallischer Nanopartikel mithilfe von überkritischem CO2

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ISBN: 9783731504665 Year: Pages: X, 201 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000051502 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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Mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles were deposited onto different powdered supports by Supercritical Fluid Reactive Deposition (SFRD). Carbon dioxide was used as supercritical solvent and hydrogen as reduction agent. In order to optimize the production process unknown factors influencing the particle and product properties were extensively studied.

Carbon Capture and Storage

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ISBN: 9783039213993 9783039214006 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-400-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Climate change is one of the main threats to modern society. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in greenhouse gas (GHGs, mainly carbon dioxide—CO2) emissions due to anthropogenic activities. The main causes are the burning of fossil fuels and land use change (deforestation). Climate change impacts are associated with risks to basic needs (health, food security, and clean water), as well as risks to development (jobs, economic growth, and the cost of living). The processes involving CO2 capture and storage are gaining attention in the scientific community as an alternative for decreasing CO2 emissions, reducing its concentration in ambient air. The carbon capture and storage (CCS) methodologies comprise three steps: CO2 capture, CO2 transportation, and CO2 storage. Despite the high research activity within this topic, several technological, economic, and environmental issues as well as safety problems remain to be solved, such as the following needs: increase of CO2 capture efficiency, reduction of process costs, and verification of the environmental sustainability of CO2 storage.

Advancements in Algal Biofuels Research - Recent Evaluation of Algal Biomass Production and Conversion Methods of into Fuels and High Value Co-products

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451982 Year: Pages: 81 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-198-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biotechnology --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Algae biomass has enormous potential to produce fuels and value-added products. Algae-derived biofuels and bioproducts offer great promise in contributing to U.S. energy security and in mitigating the environmental concerns associated with conventional fuels. Algae’s ability to grow in low quality water/wastewater and to accumulate lipids has encouraged scientists to investigate algae as a medium for wastewater treatment and a potential source of fuel and bioproducts. There are growing demands for biomass-based transportation fuels, including biodiesel, bio-oil, biomethane, biohydrogen, and other high-value products (nutraceuticals, proteins, omega-3 etc.). Algae can help address these needs. The topic of algae energy includes the production and characterization of algae cultures, conversion into fuel feedstocks and high value products, and optimization of product isolation and use. In view of the increasing efforts in algae biomass production and conversion into energy and high-value products, the current research topic covers important aspects of algal strain selection, culture systems, inorganic carbon utilization, lipid metabolism and quality, biomass harvesting, extraction of lipids and proteins, and thermochemical conversion of algal feedstocks into biocrude.

Tropical Forest Ecosystem Responses to Increasing Nutrient Availability

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452279 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-227-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Geography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Deforestation and land use change have led to a strong reduction of tropical forest cover during the last decades. Climate change will amplify the pressure to the remaining refuges in the next years. In addition, tropical regions are facing increasing atmospheric inputs of nutrients, which will have unknown consequences for the structure and functioning of these systems, no matter if they are within protected areas or not. Even remote areas are expected to receive rising amounts of nutrients. The effects of higher rates of atmospheric nutrient deposition on the biological diversity and ecosystem functioning of tropical ecosystems are poorly understood and our knowledge of nutrient fluxes and nutrient limitation in tropical forest ecosystems is still limited. Yet, it will be of paramount importance to know the effects of increased nutrient availability to conserve these ecosystems with their biological and functional diversity. During the last years, research efforts have more and more focused on the understanding of the role of nutrients in tropical ecosystems and several coordinated projects have been established that study the effects of experimental nutrient addition. This Research Topic combines results from experiments and from observational studies with the aim to review and conclude on our current knowledge on the role of additional nutrients in ecosystems.

Global Carbon Pricing

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ISBN: 9780262340397 9780262036269 Year: Pages: 268 Language: English
Publisher: The MIT Press
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:41:31
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Why the traditional “pledge and review” climate agreements have failed, and how carbon pricing, based on trust and reciprocity, could succeed.After twenty-five years of failure, climate negotiations continue to use a “pledge and review” approach: countries pledge (almost anything), subject to (unenforced) review. This approach ignores everything we know about human cooperation. In this book, leading economists describe an alternate model for climate agreements, drawing on the work of the late Nobel laureate Elinor Ostrom and others. They show that a “common commitment” scheme is more effective than an “individual commitment” scheme; the latter depends on altruism while the former involves reciprocity (“we will if you will”).The contributors propose that global carbon pricing is the best candidate for a reciprocal common commitment in climate negotiations. Each country would commit to placing charges on carbon emissions sufficient to match an agreed global price formula. The contributors show that carbon pricing would facilitate negotiations and enforcement, improve efficiency and flexibility, and make other climate policies more effective. Additionally, they analyze the failings of the 2015 Paris climate conference.ContributorsRichard N. Cooper, Peter Cramton, Ottmar Edenhofer, Christian Gollier, Éloi Laurent, David JC MacKay, William Nordhaus, Axel Ockenfels, Joseph E. Stiglitz, Steven Stoft, Jean Tirole, Martin L. Weitzman

In-situ H2O removal via hydorphilic membranes during Fischer-Tropsch and other fuel-related synthesis reactions

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ISBN: 9783866446403 Year: Pages: IV, 244 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000022232 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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The general objective of this thesis was to explore the potential of in-situ H2O removal during fuel-related synthesis reactions with focus on in-situ H2O removal by hydrophilic membranes and by chemical reaction. It is demonstrated that in-situ H2O removal through vapour permeation during CO2 hydrogenation to Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbons and during DME/DEE synthesis leads to increased conversion and yield levels, which are directly linked to the degree of H2O recovery.

Catalytic, Photocatalytic and Electrocatalytic Processes for the Valorisation of CO2

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ISBN: 9783039217786 9783039217793 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-779-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Increasing attention is being paid to the development of effective technologies for the sequestration of CO2 and its storage. Hopefully, this will result in processes that can lead to its valorisation as a chemical, e.g., for the regeneration of fuels, but also for the production of intermediates. These are usually energy demands and rather slow processes, requiring energy input and catalysts. Some examples are the innovative strategies for the hydrogenation, photoconversion, or electroreduction of carbon dioxide. This book collects original research papers, reviews, and commentaries focused on the challenges related to the valorisation and conversion of CO2.

Bioconversion Processes

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ISBN: 9783038429456 9783038429463 Year: Pages: VI, 150 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biotechnology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 12:05:03
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Compared to conventional chemical technologies and other similar industrial processes, bioprocesses represent a more sustainable and environmentally-friendly alternative for the production of fuels and platform chemicals. In biorefineries, different kinds of feedstocks, such as biomass or lignocellulosic materials in general, can be used and fermented by microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, fungi, algae), after some pretreatment steps, to produce high added-value metabolites. More recently, wastes, wastewaters and also waste gases have been shown to be suitable for resource recovery or for their bioconversion to (bio)fuels (e.g., ethanol, butanol, hexanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, biogas) or other commercial products (e.g., biopolymers). In this sense, much effort has also been made to bioconvert greenhouse gases, such as CO2, into useful products.The goal of this Special Issue is to publish both recent innovative research data, as well as review papers on the fermentation of different types of substrates to commercial (bio)fuels and (bio)products, mainly focusing on the bioconversion of pollutants in solid, liquid, or gas phases (wastes, wastewaters, waste gases).

Fungal Pathogenesis in Humans: The Growing Threat

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ISBN: 9783038979005 9783038979012 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-901-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Cancer survival rates and successful organ transplantation in patients continues to increase due to improvements in early diagnosis and treatments. Since immuno-suppressive therapies are frequently used, the mortality rate due to secondary infections has become an ever-increasing problem. Opportunistic fungal infections are probably the deadliest threat to these patients due to their difficult early diagnosis, the limited effect of antifungal drugs and the appearance of resistances. In recent years, a considerable effort has been devoted to investigating the role of many virulence traits in the pathogenic outcome of fungal infections. New virulence factors (hypoxia adaptation, CO2 sensing, pH regulation, micronutrient acquisition, secondary metabolites, immunity regulators, etc.) have been reported and their molecular mechanisms of action are being thoroughly investigated. The recent application of gene-editing technologies such as CRISPr-Cas9, has opened a whole new window to the discovery of new fungal virulence factors. Accurate fungal genotyping, Next Generation Sequencing and RNAseq approaches will undoubtedly provide new clues to interpret the plethora of molecular interactions controlling these complex systems. Unraveling their intimate regulatory details will provide insights for a more target-focused search or a rational design of more specific antifungal agents. This Special Issue is show significant discoveries, proofs of concept of new theories or relevant observations in fungal pathogenesis and its regulation.

Disturbance Effects on Soil Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Forest Ecosystems

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ISBN: 9783039286669 / 9783039286676 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-667-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Forest ecosystems are often disturbed by agents such as harvesting, fire, wind, insects and diseases, and acid deposition, with differing intensities and frequencies. Such disturbances can markedly affect the amount, form, and stability of soil organic carbon in, and the emission of greenhouse gases, including CO2, CH4, and N2O from, forest ecosystems. It is vitally important that we improve our understanding of the impact of different disturbance regimes on forest soil carbon dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions to guide our future research, forest management practices, and policy development. This Special Issue provides an important update on the disturbance effects on soil carbon and greenhouse gas emissions in forest ecosystems in different climate regions.

Keywords

carbon stock changes --- forest --- greenhouse gas inventory --- IPCC --- South Korea --- greenhouse gas emission --- soil respiration --- coastal wetlands --- anthropogenic effect --- CO2 production and diffusion --- soil properties --- CO2 emission --- surface soil layer --- forest soils --- autotrophic respiration --- heterotrophic respiration --- CO2 effluxes --- decomposition --- forest disturbance --- tree mortality --- storm damage --- insect outbreak --- land use types --- soil organic carbon --- soil total nitrogen --- N addition --- soil respiration --- microbe --- subtropical forest --- soil organic carbon --- soil microbial residue --- forest conversion --- natural forest --- assisted natural regeneration --- plantation --- CO2 --- CH4 --- N2O --- soil --- biochar --- sensitivity --- temperature --- stoichiometric ratios --- landform --- rocky desertification --- karst graben basin --- warming --- nitrogen --- greenhouse gas --- soil characteristics --- microbial properties --- soil quality --- successive planting --- generation --- stand age --- clear-cutting --- Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr --- biochar --- Camellia oleifera --- DCD --- nitrification inhibitor --- nitrous oxide --- calcareous soil --- plum plantation ages --- organic carbon mineralization --- fitting parameters --- organic carbon accumulation --- karst graben basin --- land use pattern --- bacterial community --- next-generation sequencing --- subtropical forest --- calcareous soils --- red soils --- soil CO2 --- carbon source–sink --- CH4 emissions --- CO2 emissions --- climate change mitigation --- global change --- land-use change --- N2O emissions --- soil carbon sequestration

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