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Ca2+ Signaling and Heart Rhythm

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198740 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-874-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Abstract

Ca2+ is a key second messenger in the intricate workings of the heart. In cardiac myocytes, Ca2+ signaling controls or modulates electrophysiological function, excitation-contraction coupling, contractile function, energy balance, cell death, and gene transcription. Thus, diverse Ca2+-dependent regulatory processes occur simultaneously within a cell. Yet, distinct signals can be resolved by local Ca2+ sensitive protein complexes and differential Ca2+ signal integration. In addition to its importance to normal cardiac function, such regulation is also crucial in disease conditions. Ca2+ is likely involved in ectopic cardiac rhythms in both atrial and ventricular tissues through generating triggered activity often appearing as delayed afterdepolarisations, particularly following cellular Ca overloading. Recent studies also implicate Ca2+ in Na+ channel expression and properties with consequences for conduction velocity and therefore arrhythmic substrate. At the cellular level, such regulation involves control of the activity of membrane ion channels and Ca2+ handling proteins. These in turn involve multiple extra- and intracellular signaling pathways. This e-book assembles review and original articles from experts in this field. It summarises major recent progress bearing on roles of Ca2+ in cardiac electrophysiological function encompassing both normal and abnormal cardiac function. These extend from physiological roles of Ca2+ signaling in pacemaker function, in particular generation of sino-atrial pacemaker potentials, to pathological roles of abnormal Ca2+ signaling in both atrial and ventricular arrhythmogenesis. It also seeks to bridge the gap between advances in basic science and development of new therapies.

Keywords

Ca2+ --- Heart --- Pak1 --- SA node --- voltage gated Ca2+ channels --- TRPC --- STIM1 --- Orai1 --- PP2A

Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases

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ISBN: 9783038975373 / 9783038975380 Year: Pages: 462 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-538-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physiology --- Biochemistry --- Internal medicine --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-21 10:12:01
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Intracellular Ca2+ signaling is witnessing an amazing resurgence of interest. In addition to traditional Ca2+ aficionados, an astonishing (and growing) number of colleagues from all around the world have started to devote a large part of their research to gain insights into the role of Ca2+ signaling in health and disease. This is why calcium ions interact with virtually every signal transduction pathway not only in mammalian cells, but also across the phylogenetic tree, thereby, driving or modulating most, if not all, cellular functions, ranging from fertilization to apoptosis, passing through learning and memory, cardiac contractility, and immune response. This book gathers a collection of original research articles and reviews by a number of renowned experts who aim to present the state of the art of many pathophysiological aspects of intracellular Ca2+ signaling, such as embryonic development, immune response, extracellular Ca2+ signaling, neoplastic transformation, muscle hypertrophy, pulmonary inflammation, and P2X receptor gating.

Structural and diagenetic controls on reservoir quality in tight siliciclastic and carbonate rocks

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ISBN: 9783731508366 Year: Pages: XV, 186 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000085503 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Ethnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
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Upper Carboniferous (Westphalian C/D) fluvial sandstones and Zechstein Ca2 (Stassfurt, second cycle) carbonates represent two important hydrocarbon reservoir units in NW Europe. A better understanding of reservoir quality variations and their spatial variability is crucial to develop successful exploration strategies. In fluvial Westphalian C/D sandstones and Ca2 carbonate reservoirs, the reservoir properties are controlled by diagenetic alterations and intense fracturing.

The Role of Mitochondria, Oxidative Stress and Altered Calcium Homeostasis in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: From Current Developments in the Laboratory to Clinical Treatments

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451463 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-146-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive, devastating and fatal disease characterized by selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons of the cerebral cortex, brainstem, spinal cord and muscle atrophy. In spite of many years of research, the pathogenesis of ALS is still not well understood. ALS is a multifaceted genetic disease, in which genetic susceptibility to motor neuron death interacts with environmental factors and there is still no cure for this deleterious disease. At present, there is only one FDA approved drug, Riluzole which according to past studies only modestly slows the progression of the disease, and improves survival by up to three months. The suffering of the ALS patients, and their families is enormous and the economic burden is colossal. There is therefore a pressing need for new therapies. Different molecular pathways and pathological mechanisms have been implicated in ALS. According to past studies, altered calcium homeostasis, abnormal mitochondrial function, protein misfolding, axonal transport defects, excessive production of extracellular superoxide radicals, glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, inflammatory events, and activation of oxidative stress pathways within the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum can act as major contributor that eventually leads to loss of connection between muscle and nerve ultimately resulting to ALS. However, the detailed molecular and cellular pathophysiological mechanisms and origin and temporal progression of the disease still remained elusive. Ongoing research and future advances will likely advance our improve understanding about various involved pathological mechanism ultimately leading to discoveries of new therapeutic cures. Importantly, clinical biomarkers of disease onset and progression are thus also urgently needed to support the development of the new therapeutic agents and novel preventive and curative strategies. Effective translation from pre-clinical to clinical studies will further require extensive knowledge regarding drug activity, bioavailability and efficacy in both the pre-clinical and clinical setting, and proof of biological activity in the target tissue. During the last decades, the development of new therapeutic molecules, advance neuroimaging tools, patient derived induced stem cells and new precision medicine approaches to study ALS has significantly improved our understanding of disease. In particular, new genetic tools, neuroimaging methods, cellular probes, biomarker study and molecular techniques that achieve high spatiotemporal resolution have revealed new details about the disease onset and its progression. In our effort to provide the interested reader, clinician and researchers a comprehensive summaries and new findings in this field of ALS research, hereby we have created this electronic book which comprises of twenty seven chapters having various reviews, perspective and original research articles. All these chapters and articles in this book not only summarize the cutting-edge techniques, approaches, cell and animal models to study ALS but also provide unprecedented coverage of the current developments and new hypothesis emerging in ALS research. Some examples are novel genetic and cell culture based models, mitochondria-mediated therapy, oxidative stress and ROS mechanism, development of stem cells and mechanism-based therapies as well as novel biomarkers for designing and testing effective therapeutic strategies that can benefit ALS patients who are at the earlier stages in the disease. I am extremely grateful to all the contributors to this book and want to thank them for their phenomenal efforts. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive, devastating and fatal disease characterized by selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons of the cerebral cortex, brainstem, spinal cord and muscle atrophy. In spite of many years of research, the pathogenesis of ALS is still not well understood. ALS is a multifaceted genetic disease, in which genetic susceptibility to motor neuron death interacts with environmental factors and there is still no cure for this deleterious disease. At present, there is only one FDA approved drug, Riluzole which according to past studies only modestly slows the progression of the disease, and improves survival by up to three months. The suffering of the ALS patients, and their families is enormous and the economic burden is colossal. There is therefore a pressing need for new therapies. Different molecular pathways and pathological mechanisms have been implicated in ALS. According to past studies, altered calcium homeostasis, abnormal mitochondrial function, protein misfolding, axonal transport defects, excessive production of extracellular superoxide radicals, glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, inflammatory events, and activation of oxidative stress pathways within the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum can act as major contributor that eventually leads to loss of connection between muscle and nerve ultimately resulting to ALS. However, the detailed molecular and cellular pathophysiological mechanisms and origin and temporal progression of the disease still remained elusive. Ongoing research and future advances will likely advance our improve understanding about various involved pathological mechanism ultimately leading to discoveries of new therapeutic cures. Importantly, clinical biomarkers of disease onset and progression are thus also urgently needed to support the development of the new therapeutic agents and novel preventive and curative strategies. Effective translation from pre-clinical to clinical studies will further require extensive knowledge regarding drug activity, bioavailability and efficacy in both the pre-clinical and clinical setting, and proof of biological activity in the target tissue. During the last decades, the development of new therapeutic molecules, advance neuroimaging tools, patient derived induced stem cells and new precision medicine approaches to study ALS has significantly improved our understanding of disease. In particular, new genetic tools, neuroimaging methods, cellular probes, biomarker study and molecular techniques that achieve high spatiotemporal resolution have revealed new details about the disease onset and its progression. In our effort to provide the interested reader, clinician and researchers a comprehensive summaries and new findings in this field of ALS research, hereby we have created this electronic book which comprises of twenty seven chapters having various reviews, perspective and original research articles. All these chapters and articles in this book not only summarize the cutting-edge techniques, approaches, cell and animal models to study ALS but also provide unprecedented coverage of the current developments and new hypothesis emerging in ALS research. Some examples are novel genetic and cell culture based models, mitochondria-mediated therapy, oxidative stress and ROS mechanism, development of stem cells and mechanism-based therapies as well as novel biomarkers for designing and testing effective therapeutic strategies that can benefit ALS patients who are at the earlier stages in the disease. I am extremely grateful to all the contributors to this book and want to thank them for their phenomenal efforts.

Physiological Responses to Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Forest Trees

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039215140 / 9783039215157 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-515-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Abstract

As sessile organisms, plants have to cope with a multitude of natural and anthropogenic forms of stress in their environment. Due to their longevity, this is of particular significance for trees. As a consequence, trees develop an orchestra of resilience and resistance mechanisms to biotic and abiotic stresses in order to support their growth and development in a constantly changing atmospheric and pedospheric environment. The objective of this Special Issue of Forests is to summarize state-of-art knowledge and report the current progress on the processes that determine the resilience and resistance of trees from different zonobiomes as well as all forms of biotic and abiotic stress from the molecular to the whole tree level.

Keywords

drought --- mid-term --- non-structural carbohydrate --- soluble sugar --- starch --- Pinus massoniana --- salinity --- Carpinus betulus --- morphological indices --- gas exchange --- osmotic adjustment substances --- antioxidant enzyme activity --- ion relationships --- Populus simonii Carr. (poplar) --- intrinsic water-use efficiency --- tree rings --- basal area increment --- long-term drought --- hydrophilic polymers --- Stockosorb --- Luquasorb --- Konjac glucomannan --- photosynthesis --- ion relation --- Fagus sylvatica L. --- Abies alba Mill. --- N nutrition --- mixed stands --- pure stands --- soil N --- water relations --- 24-epiBL application --- salt stress --- ion contents --- chloroplast ultrastructure --- photosynthesis --- Robinia pseudoacacia L. --- elevation gradient --- forest type --- growth --- leaf properties --- Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. --- Heterobasidion parviporum --- Heterobasidion annosum --- Norway spruce --- disturbance --- water availability --- pathogen --- infection --- Carpinus turczaninowii --- salinity treatments --- ecophysiology --- photosynthetic responses --- organic osmolytes --- ion homeostasis --- antioxidant enzymes --- glutaredoxin --- subcellular localization --- expression --- tapping panel dryness --- defense response --- rubber tree --- Ca2+ signal --- drought stress --- living cell --- Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) --- plasma membrane Ca2+ channels --- signal network --- Aleppo pine --- Greece --- photosynthesis --- water potential --- ?13C --- sap flow --- canopy conductance --- climate --- molecular cloning --- functional analysis --- TCP --- DELLA --- GA-signaling pathway --- Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. --- wood formation --- abiotic stress --- nutrition --- gene regulation --- tree --- bamboo forest --- cold stress --- physiological response --- silicon fertilization --- plant tolerance --- reactive oxygen species --- antioxidant activity --- proline --- Populus euphratica --- salt stress --- salicylic acid --- malondialdehyde --- differentially expressed genes --- n/a

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