Search results: Found 23

Listing 1 - 10 of 23 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by
Abiotic Stresses in Agroecology: A Challenge for Whole Plant Physiology

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452040 Year: Pages: 177 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-204-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Understanding plant responses to abiotic stresses is central to our ability to predict the impact of global change and environmental pollution on the production of food, feed and forestry. Besides increasing carbon dioxide concentration and rising global temperature, increasingly frequent and severe climatic events (e.g. extended droughts, heat waves, flooding) are expected in the coming decades. Additionally, pollution (e.g. heavy metals, gaseous pollutants such as ozone or sulfur dioxide) is an important factor in many regions, decreasing plant productivity and product quality. This Research topic focuses on stress responses at the level of whole plants, addressing biomass-related processes (development of the root system, root respiration/fermentation, leaf expansion, stomatal regulation, photosynthetic capacity, leaf senescence, yield) and interactions between organs (transport via xylem and phloem, long-distance signaling and secondary metabolites). Comparisons between species and between varieties of the same species are helpful to evaluate the potential for species selection and genetic improvement. This research topic is focused on the following abiotic stresses and interactions between them:- Increased carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air is an important parameter influenced by global change and affects photosynthesis, stomatal regulation, plant growth and finally yield.- Elevated temperature: both the steady rise in average temperature and extreme events of shorter duration (heat waves) must be considered in the context of alterations in carbon balance through increased photorespiration, decreased Rubisco activation and carboxylation efficiency, damage to photosynthetic apparatus, as well as loss of water via transpiration and stomatal sensitivity. - Low temperatures (late frosts, prolonged cold phases, freezing temperature) can decrease overwintering survival rates, productivity of crop plants and species composition in meadows.- Water availability: More frequent, severe and extended drought periods have been predicted by climate change models. The timing and duration of a drought period is crucial to determining plant responses, particularly if the drought event coincides with an increase in temperature. Drought causes stomatal closure, decreasing the cooling potential of transpiration and potentially leading to thermal stress as leaf temperature rises. Waterlogging may become also more relevant during the next decades and is especially important for seedlings and young plants. It is not the presence of water itself that causes the stress, but the exclusion of oxygen from the soil which causes a decrease in respiration and an increase in fermentation rates followed by a period of potential oxidative stress as water recedes.- Salinity: high salt concentration in soil influences soil water potential, the water status of the plant and hence affects productivity. Salt tolerance will become an important trait driven by increased competition for land and the need to exploit marginal lands.

Advances in Microalgae Biology and Sustainable Applications

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450145 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-014-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany --- General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

It has become more evident that many microalgae respond very differently than land plants to diverse stimuli. Therefore, we cannot reduce microalgae biology to what we have learned from land plants biology. However, we are still at the beginning of a comprehensive understanding of microalgae biology. Microalgae have been posited several times as prime candidates for the development of sustainable energy platforms, making thus the in-depth understanding of their biological features an important objective. Thus, the knowledge related to the basics of microalgae biology must be acquired and shared rapidly, fostering the development of potential applications. Microalgae biology has been studied for more than forty years now and more intensely since the 1970’s, when genetics and molecular biology approaches were integrated into the research programs. Recently, studies on the molecular physiology of microalgae have provided evidences on the particularities of these organisms, mainly in model species, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Of note, cellular responses in microalgae produce very interesting phenotypes, such as high lipid content in nitrogen deprived cells, increased protein content in cells under high CO2 concentrations, the modification of flagella structure and motility in basal body mutant strains, the different ancient proteins that microalgae uses to dissipate the harmful excess of light energy, the hydrogen production in cells under sulfur deprivation, to mention just a few. Moreover, several research groups are using high-throughput and data-driven technologies, including “omics” approaches to investigate microalgae cellular responses at a system-wide level, revealing new features of microalgae biology, highlighting differences between microalgae and land plants. It has been amazing to observe the efforts towards the development and optimization of new technologies required for the proper study of microalgae, including methods that opened new paths to the investigation of important processes such as regulatory mechanisms, signaling crosstalk, chemotactic mechanisms, light responses, chloroplast controlled mechanisms, among others. This is an exciting moment in microalgae research when novel data are been produced and applied by research groups from different areas, such as bioprocesses and biotechnology. Moreover, there has been an increased amount of research groups focused in the study of microalgae as a sustainable source for bioremediation, synthesis of bioproducts and development of bioenergy. Innovative strategies are combining the knowledge of basic sciences on microalgae into their applied processes, resulting in the progression of many applications that hopefully, will achieve the necessary degree of optimization for economically feasible large-scale applications. Advances on the areas of basic microalgae biology and novelties on the essential cellular processes were revealed. Progress in the applied science showed the use of the basic science knowledge into fostering translational research, proposing novel strategies for a sustainable world scenario. In this present e-book, articles presented by research groups from different scientific areas showed, successfully, the increased development of the microalgae research. Herewith, you will find articles ranging from bioprospecting regional microalgae species, through advances in microalgae molecular physiology to the development of techniques for characterization of biomass and the use of biomass into agriculture and bioenergy production. This e-book is an excellent source of knowledge for those working with microalgae basic and applied sciences, and a great opportunity for researchers from both areas to have an overview of the amazing possibilities we have for building an environmentally sustainable future once the knowledge is translated into novel applications.

International Conference on Carbon Dioxide Utilisation (ICCDU) 2016

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456291 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-629-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Carbon dioxide utilisation is a growing field of research that spans early stage laboratory chemistry through to commercial exploitation. In 2013 the CO2Chem Network (www.co2chem.com) made a successful bid to hold the 14th edition of this major conference. This was the first time it was held in the United Kingdom and attracted over 270 delegates from 32 different countries. It was a condition of presentation that all the work submitted was new and novel. We invited submissions of new work for this Research Topic and manuscripts were subjected to deep peer review. We are pleased that these papers are now being collated into an eBook. We value the range and quality of the papers submitted. These range from novel capture, integration and process through to policy, public perception and economic evaluation.CO2Chem was proud to be chosen to organise this prestigious conference. CO2Chem was founded in 2010 as one of the Engineering and Physical Sciences (EPSRC) Grand Challenge Networks. It is now in its eighth year of operation and its third round of direct funding. It continues to be a forum for discussion and collaboration nationally and globally. We have for a long time associated ourselves with ICCDU and will continue to do so in the future. We hope that the papers presented here serve as a catalyst to further research in CDU and to engagement with ICCDU.

Catalytic, Photocatalytic and Electrocatalytic Processes for the Valorisation of CO2

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039217786 9783039217793 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-779-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Increasing attention is being paid to the development of effective technologies for the sequestration of CO2 and its storage. Hopefully, this will result in processes that can lead to its valorisation as a chemical, e.g., for the regeneration of fuels, but also for the production of intermediates. These are usually energy demands and rather slow processes, requiring energy input and catalysts. Some examples are the innovative strategies for the hydrogenation, photoconversion, or electroreduction of carbon dioxide. This book collects original research papers, reviews, and commentaries focused on the challenges related to the valorisation and conversion of CO2.

Bioconversion Processes

Author:
ISBN: 9783038429456 9783038429463 Year: Pages: VI, 150 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biotechnology --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 12:05:03
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Compared to conventional chemical technologies and other similar industrial processes, bioprocesses represent a more sustainable and environmentally-friendly alternative for the production of fuels and platform chemicals. In biorefineries, different kinds of feedstocks, such as biomass or lignocellulosic materials in general, can be used and fermented by microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, fungi, algae), after some pretreatment steps, to produce high added-value metabolites. More recently, wastes, wastewaters and also waste gases have been shown to be suitable for resource recovery or for their bioconversion to (bio)fuels (e.g., ethanol, butanol, hexanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, biogas) or other commercial products (e.g., biopolymers). In this sense, much effort has also been made to bioconvert greenhouse gases, such as CO2, into useful products.The goal of this Special Issue is to publish both recent innovative research data, as well as review papers on the fermentation of different types of substrates to commercial (bio)fuels and (bio)products, mainly focusing on the bioconversion of pollutants in solid, liquid, or gas phases (wastes, wastewaters, waste gases).

Element-Doped Functional Carbon-based Materials

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039282241 9783039282258 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-225-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Carbon materials are one of the most fascinating materials because of their unique properties and potential use in several applications. They can be obtained from residues or by using advanced synthesis technologies like chemical vapor deposition. The carbon family is very broad, ranging from classical activated carbons to more advanced species such as carbon nanotubes and graphene. The surface chemistry is one of the most interesting aspects of this broad family of materials, which allows the incorporation of different types of chemical functionalities or heteroatoms on the carbon surface, such as O, N, B, S, or P, which can modify the acid–base character, hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, or the electronic properties of these materials and, thus, determine the final application. This book represents a collection of original research articles and communications focused on the synthesis, properties, and applications of heteroatom-doped functional carbon materials.

Carbonates

Author:
ISBN: 9783038977223 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-723-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This Special Issue is aimed at presenting the state of the art of the multidisciplinary science concerning all aspects of volcanic plumes, of relevance to the volcanology, climatology, atmospheric science, and remote sensing communities.

Novel Membrane Technologies for Traditional Industrial Processes

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038977902 9783038977919 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-791-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Through reading this book, you will obtain information on: (1) the main problems in air separation and natural gas treatment by membrane separation and how to solve them; (2) processes involving membranes and new membrane materials for the more economical utilization of bio-resources; (3) energy selection and membrane development for more expedient and stable harnessing of the natural osmosis phenomenon; (4) many excellent contributions about catalytic membrane bioreactors; (5) how to fine-tune the arrangement of aquaporins (i.e., proteins identified in biological cells) to achieve superior water treatment efficiency.

Hollow core optical fibers

Author:
ISBN: 9783039210886 9783039210893 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-089-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The possibility of guiding light in air has fascinated optical scientists and engineers since the dawn of optical fiber technology. In the last few years, hollow core optical fibers have been attracting the attention of an expanding worldwide research community, furthering the design, fabrication and device implementation of specialty optical fibers. Hollow core optical fibers are entering almost any specific application field of optics from medicine to security; from telecommunication to industrial processing; from instrumentation to biology. In parallel to the increased number of applications, major advances are still being made on the optimization of hollow core fiber designs and on the study of its underlying guiding properties, as well as in the use of different materials and fabrication techniques, which, in turn, are providing even more ways of exploitation of this technology and new technical challenges. This Special Issue of Fibers rides the wave of this increasing interest in the field of hollow core optical fibers by providing an overview of the recent progress in this field as well as an updated and indicative sample of current research activities worldwide.

Geomechanics for Energy and a Sustainable Environment

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039281503 9783039281510 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-151-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This book describes recent advances in geomechanics for energy and the sustainable environment. Four research articles, related to high-level radioactive nuclear waste disposal stability, geological effect and wellbore stability considerations for methane gas hydrate production, and artificial soil freezing, are presented in this book. In addition, a comprehensive state-of-the-art review verifies the strong correlation between global climate change and the occurrence of geotechnical engineering hazards. The review also summarizes recent attempts to reduce CO2 emissions from civil and geotechnical engineering practices. Readers will gain ideas as to how we can deal with conventional and renewable energy sources and environment-related geotechnical engineering issues.

Listing 1 - 10 of 23 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (20)

Frontiers Media SA (3)


License

CC by-nc-nd (20)

CC by (3)


Language

english (21)

eng (2)


Year
From To Submit

2020 (7)

2019 (12)

2018 (2)

2017 (1)

2016 (1)