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A dynamic interplay between membranes and the cytoskeleton critical for cell development and signaling

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193233 Year: Pages: 80 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-323-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Various cellular processes underlying plant development and response to environmental cues rely on a dynamic interplay between membranes and the cytoskeleton, e.g. vesicle and organelle trafficking, endocytosis, exocytosis, and signal transduction. In recent years, significant progress in the understanding of such interplay has been achieved and several critical links between membranes and the cytoskeleton have been characterized. As an example, recent work has clarified how auxin promotes the reorganization of cortical actin filaments by the activation of Rho GTPase pathways, and how such reorganization in turn locally modifies endocytosis and/or exocytosis and directs asymmetric distribution of PIN family of auxin transporters. Another recent achievement is the characterization of the Rho- and microtubule-driven mechanism by which the cell wall architecture is established. In particular, the elegant work by Oda and Fukuda (Science 337 p.1333, 2012) provides evidence that secondary wall patterning in xylem vessel primarily relies on two processes: a local activation of the plant Rho GTPase ROP11 and a mutual, MIDD1-mediated, inhibitory interaction between active ROP domains and cortical microtubules. Additional examples include recent genetic evidence that microtubule and actin filament interacting/regulatory proteins, such as MAP65-1 and capping protein, function as transducers of membrane lipid signaling into changes in cytoskeleton dynamics and organization. This Research Topic aims at collecting a comprehensive set of articles dealing with cellular processes involving membrane-cytoskeleton interactions. Its scope extends beyond the specific fields defined by the above examples and includes intracellular trafficking, host-pathogen interactions, response to biotic and abiotic stresses and hormonal regulation of growth. We hope that this Research Topic will also highlight critical questions that need to be addressed in the future. We welcomed Original Research Articles, Technical/Methodological Advances (e.g. analysis of cytoskeleton dynamics close to membranes), Reviews and Mini Reviews that can expand our understanding of how and why membranes and the cytoskeleton interact.

Plant cell wall in pathogenesis, parasitism and symbiosis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194421 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-442-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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The cell wall is a complex structure mainly composed of cellulose microfibrils embedded in a cohesive hemicellulose and pectin matrix. Cell wall structural proteins, enzymes and their inhibitors are also essential components of plant cell walls. They are involved in the cross-link of cell wall polysaccharides, wall structure, and the perception and signaling of defense-related elicitors at the cell surface. In the outer part of the epidermal cells, the polysaccharides are coated by the cuticle, consisting of hydrophobic cutin, suberin and wax layers. Lignin, a macromolecule composed of highly cross-linked phenolic molecules, is a major component of the secondary cell wall. The cell wall is the first cell structure on which interactions between plants and a wide range of other organisms, including insects, nematodes, pathogenic or symbiotic micro-organisms take place. It not only represents a barrier that limits access to the cellular contents that provide a rich nutrient source for pathogens but serves as a source of elicitors of plant defense responses released upon partial enzymatic degradation of wall polysaccharides during infection. Modification of the plant cell wall can also occur at the level of plasmodesmata during virus infection as well as during abiotic stresses. The fine structure and composition of the plant cell wall as well as the regulation of its biosynthesis can thus strongly influence resistance and susceptibility to pathogens. This Research Topic provides novel insights and detailed overviews on the dynamics of the plant cell wall in plant defence, parasitism and symbiosis and describes experimental approaches to study plant cell wall modifications occurring during interaction of plants with different organisms.

Advances in Aspergillus fumigatus pathobiology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197897 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-789-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Aspergillus fumigatus is a human fungal pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis (IA), a major infectious cause of death in the expanding population of immunocompromised individuals such as cancer patients and transplant recipients. The mortality of IA remains high (30-70%) and emerging resistance to triazoles, the first-line antifungal drug class, is of particular concern. Second-line therapies for IA are limited by their toxicity (polyenes) or their lack of fungicidal activity (echinocandins). Identification of novel antifungal targets is an urgent need for improving the outcome of IA. A. fumigatus is a filamentous fungus exhibiting a complex developmental cycle and elaborated mechanisms of adaptation to allow the initiation and progression of infection in the human host. The fungal cell wall, with its unique and dynamic structure, is crucial for protecting cell integrity and evading the host immune system, also contributing to biofilm formation and virulence, and thus representing an ideal antifungal target. The emergence of azole resistance implies various and complex mechanisms that need to be further elucidated. Other important processes, such as biosynthetic pathways and toxin/metabolite production are important for fungal survival and propagation in the host environment, ultimately leading to disease. Moreover, the host immune response is a determinant factor in influencing the course of infection. The objective of this topic issue is to provide an overview of the recent advances in our understanding of A. fumigatus pathobiology and of IA pathogenesis to outline future research.

Recent Advances in the Study of the Host-Fungus Interaction

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450626 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-062-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Fungal infections represent nowadays a significant burden on the healthcare system of most of the countries, and are among the infections with the highest mortality rates. This has fostered the study of the interaction of these organisms with the human host. The outer most layer of a fungal cell is the cell wall, and together with the secreted components into the extracellular compartment, are the first lines of contact with the host cells. This interaction is critical for tissue adhesion, colonization and damage. In addition, these fungal extracellular components will define the outcome of the interaction with the host immune cells, leading either to the establishment of a protective antifungal immune response or to an immune-evasive mechanism by the fungal cell. On the other hand, our immune system has effectively evolved to deal with fungal pathogens, developing strategies for cell eradication, burden control, or antigen presentation from the innate branch to the adaptive immune response. Here, we provide a series of comprehensive review papers dealing with both aspect of the interaction fungus-immune cells: the role of virulence factors and cell wall components during such interaction, and the recent advances in the study of cellular receptors in the establishment of a protective anti-fungal immune response.

Plant Organ Abscission: From Models to Crops

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453283 Year: Pages: 271 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-328-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Plant organ abscission is a developmental process regulated by the environment, stress, pathogens and the physiological status of the plant. In particular, seed and fruit abscission play an important role in seed dispersion and plant reproductive success and are common domestication traits with important agronomic consequences for many crop species. Indeed, in natural populations, shedding of the seed or fruit at the correct time is essential for reproductive success, while for crop species the premature or lack of abscission may be either beneficial or detrimental to crop productivity. The use of model plants, in particular Arabidopsis and tomato, have led to major advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying organ abscission, and now many workers pursue the translation of these advances to crop species. Organ abscission involves specialized cell layers called the abscission zone (AZ), where abscission signals are perceived and cell separation takes place for the organ to be shed. A general model for plant organ abscission includes (1) the differentiation of the AZ, (2) the acquisition of AZ cells to become competent to respond to various abscission signals, (3) response to signals and the activation of the molecular and cellular processes that lead to cell separation in the AZ and (4) the post-abscission events related to protection of exposed cells after the organ has been shed. While this simple four-phase framework is helpful to describe the abscission process, the exact mechanisms of each stage, the differences between organ types and amongst diverse species, and in response to different abscission inducing signals are far from elucidated. For an organ to be shed, AZ cells must transduce a multitude of both endogenous and exogenous signals that lead to transcriptional and cellular and ultimately cell wall modifications necessary for adjacent cells to separate. How these key processes have been adapted during evolution to allow for organ abscission to take place in different locations and under different conditions is unknown. The aim of the current collection of articles is to present and be able to compare recent results on our understanding of organ abscission from model and crop species, and to provide a basis to understand both the evolution of abscission in plants and the translation of advances with model plants for applications in crop species.

Plant Glycobiology - a sweet world of lectins, glycoproteins, glycolipids and glycans

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194216 Year: Pages: 136 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-421-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Plants synthesize a wide variety of unique glycan structures which play essential roles during the life cycle of the plant. Being omnipresent throughout the plant kingdom, ranging from simple green algae to modern flowering plants, glycans contribute to many diverse processes. Glycans can function as structural components in the plant cell wall, assist in the folding of nascent proteins, act as signaling molecules in plant defense responses or (ER) stress pathways, or serve within the energy metabolism of a plant. In most cases, glycans are attached to other macromolecules to form so-called glycoconjugates (e.g. glycoproteins, proteoglycans and glycolipids), but they can also be present as free entities residing in the plant cell. Next to the broad, complex set of glycans, plants also evolved an elaborate collection of lectins or proteins with a lectin-like domain, which can recognize and bind to endogenous (plants-own) or exogenous (foreign) glycans. Though still poorly understood in plants, the dynamic interactions between lectins and carbohydrate structures are suggested to be involved in gene transcription, protein folding, protein transport, cell adhesion, signaling as well as defense responses. As such, a complex and largely undetermined glycan-interactome is established inside plant cells, between cells and their surrounding matrix, inside the extracellular matrix, and even between organisms. Studying the biological roles of plant glycans will enable to better understand plant development and physiology in order to fully exploit plants for food, feed and production of pharmaceutical proteins.In this Research Topic, we want to provide a platform for articles describing the latest research, perspectives and methodologies related to the fascinating world of plant glycobiology, with a focus on following subjects:1. Identification and characterization of plant glycans, their biosynthetic and degradation enzymes 2. Characterization of plant lectins and glycoproteins 3. Plant glycans in the plant’s energy metabolism 4. Role of plant glycans in plant defense signaling 5. Use of plant lectins in pest control 6. Plant lectins as new tools in human medicine 7. Glyco-engineering in plants

Berry Crop Production and Protection

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ISBN: 9783039210947 9783039210954 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-095-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Berry crops include, but are not limited to, the genera: Fragaria (strawberry, Rosaceae), Ribes (currant and gooseberry, Grossulariaceae), Rubus (brambles: raspberry and blackberry; Rosaceae), Vaccinium (blueberry, cranberry and lingonberry; Ericaceae) and Vitis (grapes, Vitaceae). The significant role of these fruits in maintaining human health has increased their popularity and production, dramatically, across the world. This Special Issue of Agronomy covers berry crops in the areas of breeding, genetics, germplasm, production systems, propagation, plant and soil nutrition, pest and disease management, postharvest, health benefits, marketing and economics and other related areas. The aim will be to bring together a collection of valuable articles that will serve as a foundation of innovative ideas for production and protection of health-promoting berry crops in changed environment.

Hydrothermal Technology in Biomass Utilization & Conversion

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ISBN: 9783039286768 / 9783039286775 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-677-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This book addresses a key innovative technology for decarbonization of the energy system: hydrothermal processing. It basically consists of treating biomass and wastes in a wet form, under pressure and temperature condition. This approach is becoming more and more attractive, as new feedstock and applications are appearing on the scene of bioeconomy and bioenergy. The hydrothermal processing of various type of biomass, waste, and residues, thus, raised the interest of many researchers and companies around the world, together with downstream upgrading processes and technologies: solid products as biochar, for instance, or liquid ones as crude bioliquids, are finding new market opportunities in circular economy schemes. The Special Issue collects recent innovative research works in the field, from basic to applied research, as well as pilot industrial applications/demo. It is a valuable set of references for those investing time and effort in research in the field.

Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases

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ISBN: 9783039287048 / 9783039287055 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-705-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Mycotoxins are considered the most frequently occurring natural contaminants in human and animal diets. Considering their potential toxic and carcinogenic effects, mycotoxin exposure assessment has particular importance in the context of health risk assessment. The magnitude of a given exposure allows the derivation of the associated risk and the potential for the establishment of a disease. Although food ingestion is considered a major route of human exposure to mycotoxins, other contexts may also result in exposure, such as specific occupational environments where exposure to organic dust also occurs due to the handling of organic materials. Animals could be exposed to mycotoxins through consumption of contaminated feed, subsequently entering in the food chain and thus constituting a source of exposure to humans. Human biomonitoring is considered a new frontier for the establishment of the human internal exposure to mycotoxins. Although several studies have summarized the potential outcomes associated with mycotoxin exposure, major gaps in data remain in recognizing the mycotoxins that are the cause of diseases. This book contributes provides research that supports the anticipation of potential consequences of the exposure of humans and animals to mycotoxins, future risk assessments, and the establishment of preventive measures.

Plant Innate Immunity 2.0

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ISBN: 9783038975809 Year: Pages: 386 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-581-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Plants possess a rather complex and efficient immune system. During their evolutionary history, plants have developed various defense strategies in order to recognize and distinguishing between self and non-self, and face pathogens and animal pests. Accordingly, to study the plant innate immunity represents a new frontier in the plant pathology and crop protection fields. This book is structured in 6 sections. The first part introduces some basic and general aspects of the plant innate immunity and crop protection. Sections 2–5 focus on fungal and oomycete diseases (section 2), bacterial and phytoplasma diseases (section 3), virus diseases (section 4), and insect pests (section 5), with a number of case studies and plant–pathogen/pest interactions. The last section deals with plant disease detection and control. The book aims to highlight new trends in these relevant areas of plant sciences, providing a global perspective that is useful for future and innovative ideas.

Keywords

dieback --- disease management --- Lasiodiplodia theobromae --- mango --- pathogenicity --- Bromoviridae --- plant–virus interactions --- plant defense response --- Prune dwarf virus --- replication process --- systemic and local movement --- plant proteases --- plant immunity --- MTI --- ETI --- SAR --- ISR --- RNA silencing --- RTNLB --- Agrobacterium --- biotic stress responses --- calcium --- calcium signature --- calmodulin --- CMLs --- CDPKs --- plant immunity --- symbiosis --- cell wall --- cellulose synthase --- hypersensitive response --- pathogenesis related-protein 2 --- plant-virus interaction --- Potato virus Y --- ultrastructure --- aphid resistance --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- hydroperoxide lyase --- Macrosiphum euphorbiae --- Myzus persicae --- Solanum lycopersicum --- ?-3 fatty acid desaturase --- Arabidopsis --- azelaic acid --- glycerol-3-phosphate --- light dependent signalling --- methyl salicylate --- N-hydroxypipecolic acid --- pipecolic acid --- salicylic acid --- SAR signalling --- spectral distribution of light --- tobacco --- rice --- Chilo suppressalis --- mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 --- jasmonic acid --- salicylic acid --- ethylene --- herbivore-induced defense response --- downy mildew --- grapevine --- PRRs --- PTI --- VaHAESA --- bismerthiazol --- rice --- induced defense responses --- chemical elicitors --- Sogatella furcifera --- defense-related signaling pathways --- tomato gray mold --- tomato leaf mold --- Bacillus subtilis --- biological control --- Capsicum annuum --- Ralstonia solanacearum --- CaWRKY40b --- immunity --- negative regulator --- transcriptional modulation --- Capsicum annuum --- CaWRKY22 --- immunity --- Ralstonia Solanacearum --- WRKY networks --- metabolomics --- plant defence --- plant–microbe interactions --- priming --- pre-conditioning --- citrus decline disease --- Citrus sinensis --- Bakraee --- “Candidatus Liberibacter” --- “Candidatus Phytoplasma” --- microbiota --- innate immunity --- basal defense --- rice blast --- Magnaporthe oryzae --- proteomics --- iTRAQ --- candidate disease resistance gene --- disease resistance --- downy mildew --- garden impatiens --- leaf transcriptome --- New Guinea impatiens --- RNA-Seq --- polyphenol oxidase --- Camellia sinensis --- Ectropis obliqua --- wounding --- regurgitant --- rice --- OsGID1 --- gibberellin --- herbivore-induced plant defenses --- Nilaparvata lugens --- plant protection products --- agrochemicals --- sustainable crop protection --- food security

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