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Magnesium in the Central Nervous System

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ISBN: 9780987073051 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: 10.1017/UPO9780987073051 Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2012-05-15 03:00:19
License: University of Adelaide Press

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Our understanding of the physiology and biochemistry of the brain has improved dramatically in the last two decades. In particular, the critical role of cations, including magnesium, has become evident, even if incompletely understood at a mechanistic level. The exact role and regulation of magnesium in particular remains elusive, largely because intracelluar levls are so difficult to routinely quantify. Nonetheless, the importance of magnesium to normal central nervous system activity is self-evident given the complicated homeostatic mechanisms that maintain the concentration of this cation within strict limits essential for normal physiology and metabolism.

There is also considerable accumulating evidence to suggest alterations to some brain functions in both normal and pathological conditions may be linked to alterations in local magnesium concentration.

This book, containing chapters written by some of the foremost experts in the field of magnesium research, brings together the latest in experimental and clinical magnesium research as it relates to the central nervous system. It offers a complete and updated view of magnesium’s involvement in central nervous system function and in so doing, brings together two main pillars of contemporary neuroscience research, namely providing an explanation for the molecular mechanisms involved in brain function, and emphasizing the connections between the molecular changes and behaviour.

It is the untiring efforts of those magnesium researchers who have dedicated their lives to unraveling the mysteries of magnesium’s role in biological systems that has inspired the collation of this volume of work.

Neuroplasticity and Neurorehabilitation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193929 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-392-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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In the history of neuroscience it had long been a virtually axiomatic belief that the mature mammalian nervous system was hardwired and fixed. This view goes back to the work of Louis Broca in the 1850s and has been perhaps most famously articulated by Ramon y Cajal. The immature nervous system was thought to have considerable plasticity, but after maturity the CNS was not considered to be capable of repairing itself after damage. In the last two decades, however, persuasive evidence has been accumulating at an increasing rate that the plasticity of the nervous system persists throughout the lifespan. Beginning 14 years ago, an efficacious form of neurorehabilitation termed Constraint-Induced Movement therapy or CI therapy was shown to produce marked neuroplastic changes in the brain. It has been proposed that CI therapy harnesses neuroplasticity in the service of restoring motor and language function lost as a result of such injuries to the central nervous system as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and cerebral palsy. The proposed journal issue will include articles by the main investigators involved in the development of this body of research. There will also be articles on the role of neurogenesis in the recovery of function after CNS damage encouraged by the stimulation of endogenous stem cell production, exogenous stem cell implantation, and pharmacological means. There will also be two articles describing the work carried out to date on the use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (TDCS) to increase the excitability of the brain in order to enhance the recovery of function after stroke.

ATP-gated P2X receptors in Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194056 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-405-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Extracellular ATP is currently recognized as one of the most widely distributed neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the peripheral and central nervous system. ATP-gated P2X receptors are expressed by neurons, glial and many other non-neuronal cells and represent an attractive target for therapeutic interventions. Diverse molecular and cellular mechanisms have been identified for P2X receptor functioning, including the ability to enlarge the size of the ion pore associated with the release of several key immune molecules. A major recent breakthrough was the determination of the X-ray crystal structures of zebrafish P2X4 receptor in ATP-bound and ATP-free states. The P2X receptor research field is rapidly growing, as evidenced by the almost 2000 papers published in the last 5 years. However, despite the fundamental signalling function of extracellular ATP in the nervous system, the widespread roles of P2X receptors have not been widely elucidated and presented in textbooks. In this volume of papers we aim to gather a collection of high quality papers, detailing the latest insights from the most accomplished international P2X receptor researchers. Importantly, basic research into P2X receptors has a strong translational impact and our collection of articles could be a valuable guide for the development of new pharmacological and biotechnological tools addressing the function of P2X receptors. Within this collection we plan to cover receptor structure-function relationships, receptors trafficking, to highlight the special properties of P2X receptors and their pharmacological profiles, and to describe the translational aspects of cellular ATP signaling in pain and in other neurological and vascular diseases.

Novel roles of non-coding brain RNAs in health and disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193097 Year: Pages: 213 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-309-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), and in particular microRNAs are rapidly becoming the focus of research interest in numerous basic and translational fields, including brain research; and their importance for many aspects in brain functioning merits special discussion. The wide-scope, multi-targeted and highly efficient manner of ncRNA regulatory activities draws attention to this topic by many, but the available research and analysis tools and experimental protocols are still at their infancy, and calls for special discussion given their importance for many aspects in brain functioning. This eBook is correspondingly focused on the search for, identification and exploration of those non-coding RNAs whose activities modulate the multi-leveled functions of the eukaryotic brain. The different articles strive to cover novel approaches for identifying and establishing ncRNA-target relationships, provide state of the art reports of the affected neurotransmission pathways, describe inherited and acquired changes in ncRNA functioning and cover the use of ncRNA mimics and blockade tools for interference with their functions in health and disease of the brain. Non-coding RNAs are here to stay, and this exciting eBook provides a glimpse into their impact on our brain’s functioning at the physiology, cell biology, behavior and immune levels.

Therapeutic Implications of Circadian Rhythms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196654 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-665-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Circadian rhythms are biological processes displaying endogenous and entrainable oscillations of about 24 hours. They are driven by a group of genes called clock genes that have been widely observed in plants, animals and even in bacteria. In mammals, the core clock genes are rhythmically expressed in both the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master clock residing in the hypothalamus, and almost all peripheral tissues where they control numerous target genes in a circadian manner, and thus affect many physiological and biochemical processes. Evidence suggests that disruption of the circadian rhythms (or desynchronization) is a significant risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and sleep disorders. Evidence also suggests that the disruption suppresses immune function and increases vulnerability to infectious diseases. Restoring or strengthening the circadian rhythm may be therapeutic for these conditions. This becomes exceptionally important in modern societies because many people are suffering from frequent desynchronization due to shift working, exposure to artificial light, travel by transmeridian air flight, and involvement in social activities. Besides, the temporal variations in the incidence and severity of many diseases, such as the onset of cardiovascular events, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), inflammatory diseases and mental disorders have also drawn increasing attention to the circadian clock. The circadian rhythms affect not only the health status, but also the drug efficiency. The effects (and side effects) of many drugs vary with biological timing. The tolerance of many medications displays circadian variation as well. The timing of medical treatment in coordination with the body clock may significantly increase the desired effects of drugs, and lower the dose and toxicity. In addition, circadian rhythms can also be modulated by some therapeutic drugs, for example, melatonin and modafinil, which are used to treat circadian rhythm sleep disorders. In this Research Topic, we assemble a series of critical review and research articles that focus on the therapeutic implications of circadian rhythms. Topics include, but are not limited to: • Circadian disruption caused diseases or disorders and related intervention • Temporal manifestation of diseases or disorders and therapeutic implications • The effects of circadian rhythms on drugs • The effects of drugs on circadian rhythms

Nutrition and the Function of the Central Nervous System

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ISBN: 9783038970514 9783038970521 Year: Pages: X, 123 Language: english
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-09 17:50:23
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Neuroscience, as a field, has only recently expanded to consider how the nervous system might be influenced by interaction with other bodily systems. The psychology curriculum never, for instance, included courses on nutrition. Although we learn about the body as if it is segregated into systems (cardiovascular, immune, digestive, etc.), these systems are not truly separate. If the aphorism, you are what you eat, is literally true: then you—your personality, thoughts, feelings, etc.—are, at least partly, a product of your diet. Such recognitions have spawned the new subdiscipline, nutritional neuroscience: the study of the role of diet on neurochemistry, neurobiology, cognition and behavior. This collection explores this exciting new area.

Progenitor diversity and neural cell specification in the central nervous system

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196838 Year: Pages: 107 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-683-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The central nervous system continuously perceives, integrates, processes and generates information. These complex functions rely on the detailed elaboration of its cellular network and on the myriads of individual, highly differentiated and specialized cell types, classically subdivided into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The specification of these individual populations begins early during development with less differentiated, yet already partly restricted, progenitor cells. Anatomically located in dedicated germinative niches, neural progenitors perceive the influence of diffusible molecules of various natures and concentrations. These signals result in the initial specialization of cohorts of progenitors that express unique combinations of transcription factors. It is now clearly established that both extrinsic and intrinsic signals act in concert to determine the fate potentials of these progenitor cohorts. This limitation increases over time, adult neural progenitors being more restricted than their developmental counterparts. Nevertheless, recent data have shown that the fate restriction of neural progenitors, as well as that of their progenies, can be overwritten upon selected intrinsic factor expression, not only during development but also in adulthood. This e-book is a collection of original research studies along with review articles that, together, provide insights into the vast spatiotemporal diversity of neural progenitors, and the various factors that govern their fate potential.

The Major Discoveries of Cajal and His Disciples: Consolidated Milestones for the Neuroscience of the XXIst Century

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450664 Year: Pages: 161 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-066-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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When Santiago Ramón y Cajal started to unravel the fine structure of the nervous system in the last decades of the XIXth century maybe only his unbeatable soul of brave Spaniard imagined that most of the descriptions were scientific truths that lasted to date. Simple histological stainings, curiosity to ameliorate these, monocular microscopes, patience for drawing his observations and a rich imaginative open mind: this is the recipy for Cajal success. His descriptions of connectivity in the nervous system, compiled in Cajal's opus magna published in 1904 ("Textura del sistema nervioso del hombre y los vertebrados") and 1911 ("Histologie du systeme nerveux"), have been corroborated by modern techniques decade after decade. Even more, the main hypothesis that Cajal raised are universally recognised as biological laws, today: the neuron theory, the law on the dynamic polarization of the neuron and the chemotropic hypothesis. That is: the nervous system is not a sincitial network but is formed by individual cells; the transmission of the nerve impulses follow a main direction within a given neuron; the axons are guided by chemical substances in a chemotropic way, till form synapses with their targets. Attracted by Cajal's strong personality and scientific success, a number of medical students and doctors join him in the crusade to explore the nervous system. And the seed planted by the universal savant was really successful: Francisco Tello described interesting aspects of the regeneration of peripheral nerves which are very useful for neuroscientist currently working in this topic; Nicolás Achúcarro significantly contributed to study neuroglia and future microglia; Pío del Río-Hortega identified two out of the four main nervous cell types, the oligodendrocytes and microglia, and proposed an almost still valid classification for the CNS tumours; Fernando de Castro made was the first description of arterial chemoreceptors in the carotid body; Rafael Lorente de Nó was a dominant figure of Neuroscience for decades after the IInd World War, first describing the columnar organization of the cerebral cortex well before Mountcastle, Hubbel and Wiesel. Even less recognised co-workers and disciples of Cajal (his brother Pedro Ramón y Cajal, Domingo Sánchez, the neurologist Rodríguez-Lafora... protagonised discoveries that are consolidated scientific truths today). Altogether, it is difficult (if not impossible) to find a school in biology contributing in such a fundamental and variated way to the common acervo like the collectively known as Cajal School or Spanish Neurological School. Although the particular way to work of the Maestro, selecting a pleiade of brilliant collaborators with whom accomplish such a titanic feat, giving them freedom for their studies, has been recognised and confronted to antagonic systems followed by other relevant scientists and scientific schools, the general recognition of such a significant major milestones for Neuroscience and their vigency in the well-marched XXIst century is not: this is the purpose of this Ebook, to remind all these examples of how successful can be the scientific work when it is minutious, constant and performed by brilliant, imaginative and skilled scientists with a minimal conditions supporting their efforts.When Santiago Ramón y Cajal started to unravel the fine structure of the nervous system in the last decades of the XIXth century maybe only his unbeatable soul of brave Spaniard imagined that most of the descriptions were scientific truths that lasted to date. Simple histological stainings, curiosity to ameliorate these, monocular microscopes, patience for drawing his observations and a rich imaginative open mind: this is the recipy for Cajal success. His descriptions of connectivity in the nervous system, compiled in Cajal's opus magna published in 1904 ("Textura del sistema nervioso del hombre y los vertebrados") and 1911 ("Histologie du systeme nerveux"), have been corroborated by modern techniques decade after decade. Even more, the main hypothesis that Cajal raised are universally recognised as biological laws, today: the neuron theory, the law on the dynamic polarization of the neuron and the chemotropic hypothesis. That is: the nervous system is not a sincitial network but is formed by individual cells; the transmission of the nerve impulses follow a main direction within a given neuron; the axons are guided by chemical substances in a chemotropic way, till form synapses with their targets. Attracted by Cajal's strong personality and scientific success, a number of medical students and doctors join him in the crusade to explore the nervous system. And the seed planted by the universal savant was really successful: Francisco Tello described interesting aspects of the regeneration of peripheral nerves which are very useful for neuroscientist currently working in this topic; Nicolás Achúcarro significantly contributed to study neuroglia and future microglia; Pío del Río-Hortega identified two out of the four main nervous cell types, the oligodendrocytes and microglia, and proposed an almost still valid classification for the CNS tumours; Fernando de Castro made was the first description of arterial chemoreceptors in the carotid body; Rafael Lorente de Nó was a dominant figure of Neuroscience for decades after the IInd World War, first describing the columnar organization of the cerebral cortex well before Mountcastle, Hubbel and Wiesel. Even less recognised co-workers and disciples of Cajal (his brother Pedro Ramón y Cajal, Domingo Sánchez, the neurologist Rodríguez-Lafora... protagonised discoveries that are consolidated scientific truths today). Altogether, it is difficult (if not impossible) to find a school in biology contributing in such a fundamental and variated way to the common acervo like the collectively known as Cajal School or Spanish Neurological School. Although the particular way to work of the Maestro, selecting a pleiade of brilliant collaborators with whom accomplish such a titanic feat, giving them freedom for their studies, has been recognised and confronted to antagonic systems followed by other relevant scientists and scientific schools, the general recognition of such a significant major milestones for Neuroscience and their vigency in the well-marched XXIst century is not: this is the purpose of this Ebook, to remind all these examples of how successful can be the scientific work when it is minutious, constant and performed by brilliant, imaginative and skilled scientists with a minimal conditions supporting their efforts.

Clinical Application of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT): Cranium to Prostate

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198467 Year: Pages: 85 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-846-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Stereotactic radiosurgery is a relatively recent radiation technique initially developed using a frame-based system in 1949 by a Swedish neurosurgeon, Lars Leksell, for lesions not amendable to surgical resection. Radiosurgery is founded on principles of extreme radiation dose escalation, afforded by precise dose delivery with millimeter accuracy. Building upon the success of frame-based radiosurgery techniques, which were limited to cranial tumors and invasive head-frame placement, advances in radiation delivery and image-guidance have lead to the development of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). SBRT allows for frameless delivery of dose distributions akin to frame-based cranial stereotactic radiosurgery to both cranial and extra-cranial sites and has emerged as a important treatment strategy for a variety of cancers from the cranium to prostate. Herein we highlight ongoing investigations for the clinical application of SBRT for a variety of primary and recurrence cancers aimed at examining the growing clinical evidence supporting emerging roles for SBRT in the ever growing oncologic armamentarium.

Lymphocytes in MS and EAE: More than just a CD4+ World

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453023 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-302-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Multiple sclerosis is degenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which myelin destruction and axon loss leads to the accumulation of physical, cognitive, and mental deficits. MS affects more than a million people worldwide and managing this chronic disease presents a significant health challenge. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that MS is an autoimmune disorder in which immune cells launch an inflammatory attack targeting myelin antigens. Indeed, myelin-reactive T cells and antibodies have been identified in MS patients and in animal models (namely experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, or EAE) that recapitulate many features of human disease. Animal model studies have demonstrated that T cells are both necessary and sufficient to initiate and sustain CNS autoimmunity. However, most MS animal models rely on the role played by CD4+ T cells and partially replicate the multiple aspects of MS pathogenesis. Thus, research in the past has focused heavily on the contribution of CD4+ T cells to the disease process; searching PubMed for “MS AND CD4” yields twice the results as corresponding searches for “CD8” or “B cell” and four times that for “NK cells”. While CD4+ T cells may represent the minimum requirement to mediate CNS autoimmunity, it is clear that the immune response underlying human MS is far more complex and involves numerous other immune cells and subsets. This is well illustrated by the observation that MS patients treated with an anti-CD4 depleting antibody did not gain any clinical benefits whereas removal of several lymphocyte subsets using an anti-CD52 depleting antibody has been shown to impede disease progression. In particular, the pathogenic role(s) of non-CD4+ T cell lymphocytes is relatively poorly understood and under-researched, despite evidence that these subsets contribute to disease pathology or regulation. For example, the observed oligoclonal expansion of CD8+ T cells within the CNS compartment supports a local activation. CD8+ T cells with polarized cytolytic granules are seen in close proximity to oligodendrocytes and demyelinated axons in MS tissues. The presence of B cells in inflammatory lesions and antibodies in the CSF have long been recognized as features of MS and Rituximab, a B cell depleting therapy, has been shown to be highly effective to treat MS. Intriguingly, the putative MS therapeutic reagent Daclizumab may function in part through the expansion of a subset of immunoregulatory NK cells. NKT and ?d T cells may also play a role in CNS autoimmunity, given that they respond to lipid antigens and that myelin is lipid-rich. While different animal models recapitulate some of these aspects of human disease, identifying appropriate models and measures to investigate the role of these less well-understood lymphocytes in MS remains a challenge for the field. This Frontiers research topic aims to create a platform for both animal- and human-focused researchers to share their original data, hypotheses, future perspectives and commentaries regarding the role of these less-well understood lymphocyte subsets (CD8+ T cells, B cells, NK cells, NK T cells, ?d T cells) in the pathogenesis of CNS autoimmunity.

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