Search results: Found 5

Listing 1 - 5 of 5
Sort by
Dendritic spines: From shape to function

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197668 Year: Pages: 235 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-766-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

One fundamental requisite for a comprehensive view on brain function and cognition is the understanding of the neuronal network activity of the brain. Neurons are organized into complex networks, interconnected through synapses. The main sites for excitatory synapses in the brain are thin protrusions called dendritic spines that emerge from dendrites. Dendritic spines have a distinct morphology with a specific molecular organization. They are considered as subcellular compartments that constrain diffusion and influence signal processing by the neuron and, hence, spines are functional integrative units for which morphology and function are tightly coupled. The density of spines along the dendrite reflects the levels of connectivity within the neuronal network. Furthermore, the relevance of studying dendritic spines is emphasized by the observation that their morphology changes with synaptic plasticity and is altered in many psychiatric disorders. The present Research Topic deals with some of the most recent findings concerning dendritic spine structure and function, showing that, in order to understand how brain neuronal activity operates, these two factors should be regarded as being intrinsically linked.

Neonatal and Pediatric Cerebro-Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456598 Year: Pages: 112 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-659-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Pediatric resuscitation medicine has witnessed significant advances with improved understanding of the pathophysiology of cardiac arrest and resuscitation. Multiple mechanisms of neurological injury have been identified, outlining potential avenues for neuroprotection following cardiac arrest. Resuscitation science exists at multiple levels of analysis, from biomechanics of chest compressions to implementation of best training procedures in real time, from epidemiology of cardiac arrest survival to molecular mechanisms of cellular injury due to ischemia and reperfusion. What next steps in research and in clinical practice will ensure the best possible neurologic outcome among children who survive cardiac arrest? How can we leverage novel technologies in neuroimaging, nanomaterials, drug delivery, biomarker-based risk stratification and next generation sequencing, among others, to resuscitate and to protect the Central Nervous System (CNS)? How can we improve clinical trial design and data analyses to maintain a robust clinical research infrastructure and to ensure validity and applicability? These are just some of the questions will addressed in this Research Topic. Using evidence-based algorithms and public health approaches to disseminate them, the last decade has seen a paradigm shift in pediatric resuscitation with significantly improved survival from pediatric cardiac arrests. However, neurologic outcome in survivors remains far from optimal. High quality CPR is increasingly recognized as a key factor for improving neurologic outcomes. Advanced technologies allow monitoring the quality of CPR and just-in-time feedback to improve the quality of CPR. Further research is needed to evaluate impact of these technologies on neurologic outcome. The recent American Heart Association CPR guidelines emphasis on Circulation-Airway-Breathing (CAB) approach to CPR needs a careful evaluation in children, in whom timely airway and breathing support are as important as circulation. The growing controversy regarding use of epinephrine, and alternative routes of administration of epinephrine during CPR, warrants further evaluation in the setting of pediatric CPR. Improved outcome of hemodynamic goal-directed CPR over standard CPR in animal models of cardiac arrest has initiated interest in physiology-based CPR, especially in the in-hospital cardiac arrest. Basic and applied-science research have become relevant for specific subpopulations of pediatric cardiac arrest victims and circumstances (e.g., ventricular fibrillation, neonates, congenital heart disease, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Just-in-time and just-in-place simulation training, which have evolved as training strategies to improve quality of CPR, are being evaluated for outcomes. The concept of just-in-time and just-in-place coaching of CPR providers on high quality CPR is a novel concept which has emerged recently and remains unstudied. Whilst there have been significant advances in newborn stabilization over the last decade many questions remain unanswered. These include the role of delayed cord clamping in preterm infants and term newborns requiring resuscitation, the role of sustained inflations as a method of respiratory support and the role of epinephrine and volume administration in neonatal resuscitation. Novel methods of assessment including the use of end tidal CO2 monitoring, respiratory function monitoring and near infrared spectroscopy warrant further evaluation. The use of transitioning animal models that accurately replicate the newborn circulation with patent fetal shunts are emerging but more assessments in these are required to better establish CPR strategies in newborn infants. Newborn resuscitation training programs have resulted in a reduction in neonatal mortality in the developing world, but key questions remain around the frequency of training, team training methods and the role of simulation training. Post resuscitation interventions, in particular therapeutic hypothermia, has resulted in significant improvements in long-term outcome and there is now a growing interest in adjunct therapies, such as use of melatonin, erythropoietin, or other neuroprotective molecules to improve therapeutic benefits of cooling. Therapeutic hypothermia did not provide any higher benefit than normothermia in children following out of hospital cardiac arrest, although three is considerable debate in the community whether 14% probability of observing a similar outcome if the study were repeated a 100 times applies to an individual child in the PICU. Exciting research is occurring in unraveling connection between inflammation, immune dysregulation and neuroinjury. This will further support research on the use of anti-inflammatory agents and immunomodulators for neuroprotection after cardiac arrest and birth asphyxia.

Experimental models of early exposure to alcohol: a way to unravel the neurobiology of mental retardation

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194728 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-472-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Pediatrics --- Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:33
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Excessive alcohol drinking represents a major social and public health problem for several countries. Alcohol abuse during pregnancy leads to a complex syndrome referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), chiefly characterized by mental retardation. The effects of early exposure to ethanol can be reproduced in laboratory animals and this helped to answer several key questions concerning the human pathology. The interest of experimental models of FASD is twofold. First, they increase our knowledge about the dose and modality of alcohol consumption able to induce damaging effects on the developing brain. Second, experimental models of FASD can provide useful hints to elucidate the basic mechanisms leading to the intellectual disability. In fact, experimental exposure to alcohol can be carried out during discrete, often very restricted, time windows. As a consequence, FASD models, though depending on the multifaceted interference of alcohol with several molecular pathways, can provide valuable information about which specific developmental periods and brain areas are critically involved in the genesis of mental retardation. Putting together data obtained through several experimental paradigms of alcohol exposure and those deriving from other genetic and non-genetic models, one can figure out to what extent different types of mental retardation share common pathogenetic mechanisms. The present Research Topic is aimed at establishing the state of the art of the current research on experimental FASD, focusing on differences and homologies with other types of intellectual disability. The ultimate goal is to find out a common roadmap in view of future therapeutical approaches.

Wiring Principles of Cerebral Cortex

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196920 Year: Pages: 171 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-692-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Cerebral cortex is probably the most complex biological network. Here many millions of individual neurons, the functional units of cortex, are interconnected through a massive yet highly organized pattern of axonal and dendritic wiring. This wiring enables both near and distant cells to coordinate their responses and generate a rich variety of cognitions and behaviours. When the wiring is damaged through disease or trauma it may reorganize but this may lead to characteristic pathological behaviours. While there have been significant advances in mapping cortical connectivity, the organizing principles and function of this connectivity are not well understood. On the one hand, there appears to be general design constraints governing cortical wiring, as first recognised by Rámon y Cajal's in his laws of conduction, material, and volume conservation. Yet on the other hand, particular patterns of cortical wiring exist to serve specific functions. There is a wide gap in understanding how the response and connectivity properties of a single neuron contribute to emergent network functions such as in detecting perceptually relevant features. Unravelling this intimate causal relationship represents one of the major challenges in neuroscience. This Research Topic will examine progress in understanding cortical wiring principles. This Research Topic aims to draw together recent advances in methods and understanding as well as recent challenges to existing ideas about how cerebral cortex is wired. This is particularly timely because new automated techniques may soon yield huge datasets in need of explanation. Recent studies have, for instance, empirically evaluated Rámon y Cajal's conservation laws for cerebral cortex, while others have shown some unexpected connectivity features that may refine the traditional view of how corticocortical connections are organised with regard to functional representations of auditory, somatosensory and visual cortices. Understanding these data will help improve the fidelity of neural models of cerebral cortical function and take into account the diversity of connections at both micro- and mesoscopic scales not seen at such a depth before.

From Ecology to Brain Development: Bridging Separate Evolutionary Paradigms

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455577 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-557-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The nervous system is the product of biological evolution and is shaped by the interplay between extrinsic factors determining the ecology of animals, and by intrinsic processes that dictate the developmental rules that give rise to adult functional structures. This special topic is oriented to develop an integrative view from behavior and ecology to neurodevelopmental processes. We address questions such as how do sensory systems evolve according to ecological conditions? How do neural networks organize to generate adaptive behavior? How does cognition and brain connectivity evolve? What are the developmental mechanisms that give rise to functional adaptation? Accordingly, the book is divided in three sections, (i) Evolution of sensorimotor systems; (ii) Cognitive computations and neural circuits, and (iii) Development and brain evolution. We hope that this initiative will support an interdisciplinary program that addresses the nervous system as a unified organ, subject to both functional and developmental constraints, where the final outcome results of a compromise between different parameters rather than being the result of several single variables acting independently of each other.

Listing 1 - 5 of 5
Sort by
Narrow your search

Publisher

Frontiers Media SA (5)


License

CC by (5)


Language

english (5)


Year
From To Submit

2018 (2)

2016 (1)

2015 (2)