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Improving outcomes in cerebral palsy with early intervention: new translational approaches

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195121 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-512-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Pediatrics --- Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The aim of this Research Topic was to collate articles describing prediction of outcomes of pre- and perinatal lesions leading to cerebral palsy, basic research in animal models and human subjects, and ideas for, and trials of, interventions in the first two years of life.CP arises from insults to the sensorimotor cortex, subcortical axon tracts and subplate. The aetiology is complex and often multifactorial. The outcome is not simply a loss of voluntary control due to disruption of descending pathways, but also involves abnormal development of reflex and corticospinal circuitry. CP may be viewed as aberrant plasticity in response to a lesion, indeed, abnormalities in movement are subtle at first but develop subsequently. It is misleading to suppose that developmental mechanisms are self-reparative. The challenge is to understand activitydependent fine tuning of neural circuitry during normal development and to find how to promote desirable plasticity whilst limiting undesirable effects following developmental lesions. However, before proposing interventions, we have to develop our ability to predict the severity of neonatal insults.We solicited a variety of articles, including long and short reviews, original research and opinion pieces, from both basic scientists and clinicians. Likewise we, as editors, have complementary knowledge and experience in this area. Anna Basu is an academic pediatric neurologist and Gavin Clowry is a developmental neuroscientist.

Interaction of BCI with the underlying neurological conditions in patients: pros and cons

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194896 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-489-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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The primary purpose of Brain Computer Interface (BCI) systems is to help patients communicate with their environment or to aid in their recovery. A common denominator for all BCI patient groups is that they suffer from a neurological deficit. As a consequence, BCI systems in clinical and research settings operate with control signals (brain waves) that could be substantially altered compared to brain waves of able-bodied individuals. Most BCI systems are built and tested on able-bodied individuals, being insufficiently robust for clinical applications. The main reason for this is a lack of systematic analysis on how different neurological problems affect the BCI performance. Neurological problems interfering with BCI performance are either a direct cause of a disability (e.g. stroke, autism, epilepsy ) or secondary consequences of a disability, often overlooked in design of BCI systems (chronic pain, spasticity and antispastic drugs, loss of cognitive functions, drowsiness, medications which are increasing/decreasing brain activity in certain frequency range) . While some of these deficits may decrease the performance of a BCI, others may potentially improve its performance compared to BCI tested on a healthy population (e.g. overactivation of motor cortex in patients with Central neuropathic pain (CNP), increased alpha activity in some patient groups). Depending on the neurological condition, a prolonged modulation of brain waves through BCI might produce both positive or detrimental effects. Thus some BCI protocols might be more suitable for a short term use (e.g. rehabilitation of movement) while the others would be more suitable for a long term use. Prolonged self-regulation of brain oscillation through BCI could potentially be used as a treatment for aberrant brain connections for conditions ranging from motor deficits to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Currently, ASD is an increasingly prevalent condition in the U.S. with core deficits in imitation learning, language, empathy, theory of mind, and self-awareness. Understanding its neuroetiology is not only critical and necessary but should provide relevant insights into the relationship between neuroanatomy, physiology and behaviour. In this Research Topic we welcome studies of the highest scientific quality highlighting how BCI systems based on different principles (SSVEP, P300, slow cortical potential, auditory potential, operant conditioning, etc) interact with the underlying neurological problems and how performance of these BCI system differ compared to similar systems tested on healthy individuals. We also welcome studies defining signatures of neurological disorders and proposing BCI based treatments. We expect to generate a body of knowledge valuable both to researchers working with clinical populations, but also to a vast majority of BCI researchers testing new algorithms on able-bodied people. This should lead towards more robust or tailor-made BCI protocols, facilitating translation of research from laboratories to the end users.

Magnetoencephalography: an emerging neuroimaging tool for studying normal and abnormal human brain development

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196586 Year: Pages: 209 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-658-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Research on the human brain development has seen an upturn in the past years mostly due to novel neuroimaging tools that became available to study the anatomy and function of the developing brain. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) are beginning to be used more frequently in children to determine the gross anatomy and structural connectivity of their brain. Functional MRI and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) determine the hemodynamics and electroencephalography (EEG) the electrophysiological functions of the developing human brain. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) complements EEG as the only other technique capable of directly measuring the developing brain electrophysiology. Although MEG is still being used relatively rarely in pediatric studies, the recent development in this technology is beginning to demonstrate its utility in both basic and clinical neurosciences. MEG seems to be quite attractive for pediatric use, since it measures the human brain activity in an entirely passive manner without possessing any conceivable risk to the developing tissue. MEG sessions generally require minimal patient preparation, and the recordings are extremely well tolerated from children. Biomagnetic techniques also offer an indirect way to assess the functional brain and heart activity of fetuses in humans in utero by measuring the magnetic field outside the maternal abdomen. Magnetic field produced by the electrical activity in the heart and brain of the fetus is not attenuated by the vernix, a waxy film covering its entire skin. A biomagnetic instrument specifically designed for fetal studies has been developed for this purpose. Fetal MEG studies using such a system have shown that both spontaneous brain activity and evoked cortical activity can be measured from outside the abdomen of pregnant mothers. Fetal MEG may become clinically very useful for implementation and evaluation of intervention programs in at-risk populations. Biomagnetic instruments have also been developed for specifically measuring the brain activity in newborns, infants and older children. MEG studies have shown the usefulness of MEG for localizing active regions in the brain and also for tracking the longitudinal maturation of various sensory systems. Studies of pediatric patients are beginning to show interesting functional pathology in autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, epilepsy and other types of neurological and psychiatric disorders (Down syndrome, traumatic brain injury, Tourette syndrome, hearing deficits, childhood migraine). In this eBook, we compile the state of the art MEG and other neuroimaging studies focused on pediatric population in both health and disease. We believe a review of the recent studies of human brain development using MEG is quite timely, since we are witnessing advances not only in the instrumentation optimized for the pediatric population, but also in the research based on various types of MEG systems designed for both human fetuses in utero and neonates and older children.

Simplified Signs: A Manual Sign-Communication System for Special Populations, Volume 1.

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781783749232 / 9781783749256 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 650 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0205 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2020-08-06 18:39:55
License: CC-BY-4.0

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Simplified Signs presents a system of manual sign communication intended for special populations who have had limited success mastering spoken or full sign languages. It is the culmination of over twenty years of research and development by the authors. The Simplified Sign System has been developed and tested for ease of sign comprehension, memorization, and formation by limiting the complexity of the motor skills required to form each sign, and by ensuring that each sign visually resembles the meaning it conveys.Volume 1 outlines the research underpinning and informing the project, and places the Simplified Sign System in a wider context of sign usage, historically and by different populations. Volume 2 presents the lexicon of signs, totalling approximately 1000 signs, each with a clear illustration and a written description of how the sign is formed, as well as a memory aid that connects the sign visually to the meaning that it conveys.While the Simplified Sign System originally was developed to meet the needs of persons with intellectual disabilities, cerebral palsy, autism, or aphasia, it may also assist the communication needs of a wider audience – such as healthcare professionals, aid workers, military personnel , travellers or parents, and children who have not yet mastered spoken language. The system also has been shown to enhance learning for individuals studying a foreign language.Lucid and comprehensive, this work constitutes a valuable resource that will enhance the communicative interactions of many different people, and will be of great interest to researchers and educators alike.

Simplified Signs: A Manual Sign-Communication System for Special Populations, Volume 2.

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ISBN: 9781783749997 / 9781800640016 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 1136 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0220 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2020-08-06 18:41:42
License: CC-BY-4.0

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Simplified Signs presents a system of manual sign communication intended for special populations who have had limited success mastering spoken or full sign languages. It is the culmination of over twenty years of research and development by the authors. The Simplified Sign System has been developed and tested for ease of sign comprehension, memorization, and formation by limiting the complexity of the motor skills required to form each sign, and by ensuring that each sign visually resembles the meaning it conveys.Volume 1 outlines the research underpinning and informing the project, and places the Simplified Sign System in a wider context of sign usage, historically and by different populations. Volume 2 presents the lexicon of signs, totalling approximately 1000 signs, each with a clear illustration and a written description of how the sign is formed, as well as a memory aid that connects the sign visually to the meaning that it conveys.While the Simplified Sign System originally was developed to meet the needs of persons with intellectual disabilities, cerebral palsy, autism, or aphasia, it may also assist the communication needs of a wider audience – such as healthcare professionals, aid workers, military personnel , travellers or parents, and children who have not yet mastered spoken language. The system also has been shown to enhance learning for individuals studying a foreign language.Lucid and comprehensive, this work constitutes a valuable resource that will enhance the communicative interactions of many different people, and will be of great interest to researchers and educators alike.

Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric Diseases

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ISBN: 9783039219667 9783039219674 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-967-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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A screenshot of some the most rapidly evolving fields in Neonatology and Pediatrics with articles reviewing some metabolic dysregulations as well as non-oncologic diseases that may occur in infancy, childhood, youth. The illustrative material with original photographs and drawings highlighting some pathogenetic concepts are keystones of this book.

Metabolomics in Neurodegenerative Disease

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ISBN: 9783039280407 / 9783039280414 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-041-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The range of human neurodegenerative diseases continues to pose significant unmet medical needs for societies around the world. The progressive and terminal nature of these conditions places a considerable personal burden on the individual affected but also on public health systems and health services. Tens of millions of people are indiscriminately affected by various dementias, which are rising at an alarming rate. There are no cures for many conditions, and it is clear that treatments applied as early as possible could greatly improve outcomes for patients. Therefore, new disease classification and diagnostic tools should be a key priority. Metabolomics represents a relatively new field of analytical science, which can be extremely useful in the early diagnosis of disease. The relatively unique feature of metabolites is that they sit at the intersection between the genetic background of an organism and its environment. Because many neurodegenerative diseases are not genetically inherited (instead having a range of known genetic risk factors and also a large number of unknown environmental triggers) the field of metabolomics offers great promise for the discovery of new, biologically, and clinically relevant biomarkers for neurodegenerative disorders. It is already bringing forward new knowledge in terms of the mechanisms of neurodegenerative disease.

Human Health Engineering

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ISBN: 9783039284085 9783039284092 Year: Pages: 428 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-409-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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In this Special Issue on human health engineering, we invited submissions exploring recent contributions to the field of human health engineering, which is the technology used for monitoring the physical or mental health status of individuals in a variety of applications. Contributions focused on sensors, wearable hardware, algorithms, or integrated monitoring systems. We organized the different papers according to their contributions to the main aspects of the monitoring and control engineering scheme applied to human health applications, including papers focusing on measuring/sensing physiological variables, contributions describing research on the modelling of biological signals, papers highlighting health monitoring applications, and finally examples of control applications for human health. In comparison to biomedical engineering, the field of human health engineering also covers applications on healthy humans (e.g., sports, sleep, and stress) and thus not only contributes to develop technology for curing patients or supporting chronically ill people, but also more generally for disease prevention and optimizing human well-being.

Keywords

artefact correction --- head-shaped phantom --- spherical phantom --- gradient artefact --- simultaneous EEG–fMRI --- calcaneal spur --- pain minimum compressive pressure --- contour of shoe insole --- insole foot area --- health information --- interface formats --- older adults --- wearable devices --- usability --- emotional reaction --- ADHD --- screening --- machine learning --- SVM --- children --- novel --- nomophobia --- anxiety --- smartphone --- internet --- cyberaddiction --- new technologies --- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease --- COPD --- oxygen uptake --- VO2 --- kinetics --- exercise testing --- rehabilitation robotics --- soft walking assistive robot --- long-term effect --- gait characteristics --- elderly person --- blood pressure estimation --- photoplethysmogram --- pulse wave --- pulse oximeter --- wearable device --- Kano-TRIZ design theory --- quality function deployment --- four-wheeled rollator --- model predictive control --- orthosis control --- muscle modeling --- arm --- Hill muscle --- swarm optimization --- pneumatic artificial muscle --- sliding mode control --- fractional calculus --- antagonistic actuator --- weight loss --- mHealth --- dynamic model --- adaptive control --- spirometry --- airflow limitation --- airway resistance --- specific airway conductance --- COPD --- body-plethysmography --- forced expiration --- alveolar pressure --- emphysema --- computed tomography --- air-trapping --- thermal comfort --- bicycle helmet --- smart wearables --- adaptive model --- streaming data --- thermal sensation --- adaptive model --- personalized model --- machine leaning --- support-vector-machine --- adaptive control --- streaming algorithm --- thermoregulation --- homeostasis --- cold-induced-vasodilation --- cold-induced-vasoconstriction --- control system --- dynamic modelling --- powered mobility --- dyskinetic cerebral palsy --- dystonia --- choreoathetosis --- mobility scale --- movement disorder --- children --- youth --- reliability --- validity --- feature engineering --- intensive care unit --- mortality prediction --- hard-margin support vector machines --- driver drowsiness --- thermoregulation --- distal skin temperature --- decision tree --- heart model --- Van der Pol --- FitzHugh–Nagumo --- relaxation oscillator --- electrocardiographic signal --- bicycle helmets --- thermal manikin --- convective and evaporative heat loss --- zonal performance characteristics --- freestyle skiing aerials --- knee joint --- ligament --- finite element simulation --- lifting technique --- stoop --- squat --- work-related musculoskeletal disorders --- musculoskeletal modeling --- spine --- shoulder --- back loading --- harmonization --- meta-analysis --- missing data --- multiple imputations --- information technology --- remoteness --- cohort studies --- control parameter reference --- stance assistance --- magnetorheological brake --- body mass index --- walking speed --- ankle torque --- ankle angular velocity --- n/a

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