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The role of viable but non-infectious developmental forms in chlamydial biology

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193219 Year: Pages: 119 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-321-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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The chlamydiae are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria with a complex developmental cycle comprising a metabolically less-active, infectious stage, the elementary body (EB), and a metabolically more active stage, the reticulate body (RB). They are responsible for many acute and chronic diseases in humans and animals. In order to play a causative role in chronic diseases, chlamydiae would need to persist and to re-activate within infected cells/tissues for extended periods of time. Persistence in vitro is defined as viable but non-cultivable chlamydiae involving morphologically enlarged, aberrant, and nondividing RBs, termed aberrant bodies (AB). In vitro, alterations of the normal developmental cycle of chlamydiae can be induced by the addition of Interferon-? (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and penicillin G exposure as well as amino acid or iron deprivation, monocyte infection and co-infection with viruses. In vivo, key questions include whether or not ABs occur in infected patients and animals and whether such ABs can contribute to prolonged, chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and scarring through continuing stimulation of the host immune system known from diseases such as trachoma, pelvic inflammatory disease, reactive arthritis and atherosclerosis. To date, the direct causal role in the pathogenesis of chlamydial infection and persistence in vivo has been questioned since there was no tractable animal model of chlamydial persistence so far. A very recent study was able to establish an experimental animal model of in vivo persistence, when C. muridarum vaginally-infected mice were gavaged with amoxicillin. Amoxicillin treatment induced C. muridarum to enter the persistent state in vivo. Recent in vivo data from patients indicate that viable but non-infectious developmental stages are present in the genital tract of chronically-infected women and that the gastrointestinal tract might be a reservoir for persistent chlamydial infections at other sites.

Evidence-Based Programming for Older Adults

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195855 Year: Pages: 361 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-585-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-02 10:49:06
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There is increased world-wide concern about the impact of multiple chronic conditions, especially among the rapidly aging population. Simultaneously, over the past decade there has been an emergence of state-wide and national initiatives to reduce the burden of chronic conditions that draw upon the translation of evidence-based programs (EPB) into community practice. Yet, little has been written about the national and international implementation, dissemination, and sustainability of such programs. This Research Topic features articles about EBPs for older adults, including a range of articles that focus on the infrastructure needed to widely disseminate EBP as well as individual participant impacts on physical, mental, and social aspects of health and well-being. Using a pragmatic research perspective, this Research Topic will advance knowledge that aims to enhance practice, inform policy and build systems of support and delivery in regard to the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of evidence-based interventions for older adults. The focus is on knowledge transfer rather than knowledge generation but with a dual emphasis on the dissemination and sustainability of EBP that have been tested and shown effective as well as the adaptation of practice-based interventions into evidence-based programs. This Research Topic draws upon grand-scale efforts to deliver these programs, and include both U.S. as well as international examples. Commentaries discuss processes in the development and measurement of EBP and reflect perspectives from program developers and major national and regional funders of EBP as well as professionals and practitioners in the field. The full-length articles focus on four major programmatic areas: (1) chronic disease self-management programs; (2) fall prevention programs; (3) general wellness and physical activity programs; and (4) mental health programs. Additionally, articles are included to discuss cross-cutting issues related to building partnerships and the research infrastructure for the implementation, evaluation, and dissemination of evidence-based programming. The intent of this Research Topic is to enhance practice, inform policy, and build systems of support and delivery for EBP. It is written for a diverse audience and contains practical implications and recommendations for introducing, delivering, and sustaining EBP in a multitude of settings.

Dietary Antioxidants and Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases

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ISBN: 9783038972266 9783038972273 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-227-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-11 09:46:24
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Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated the association between oxidative stress and non-communicable disease, including cardiovascular disorders, mental disease, and several types of cancer. Oxidative stress is commonly known as an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the biological antioxidant defense system. Exogenous antioxidants have gained great attention because of their beneficial role in preventing chronic disease. A balanced diet contains hundreds of naturally occurring antioxidant compounds, including polyphenols and vitamins. Antioxidants are commonly found in vegetables, fruits, cocoa, grain cereals, olive oil, nuts and beverages, such as coffee and tea.This book presents original research and reviews of literature concerning dietary antioxidants and human health.

NETosis 2: The Excitement Continues

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453795 Year: Pages: 362 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-379-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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NETosis, a form of cell death that manifests by the release of decondensed chromatin to the extracellular space, provides valuable insights into mechanisms and consequences of cellular demise. Because extracellular chromatin can immobilize microbes, the extended nucleohistone network was called a neutrophil extracellular trap (NET), and the process of chromatin release was proposed to serve an innate immune defense function. Extracellular chromatin NETs were initially observed in studies of neutrophils and are most prominent in these types of granulocytes. Subsequent studies showed that other granulocytes and, in a limited way, other cells of the innate immune response may also release nuclear chromatin following certain kinds of stimulation. Variations of NETosis were noted with cells that remain temporarily motile after the release of chromatin. Numerous stimuli for NETosis were discovered, including bacterial breakdown products, inflammatory stimuli, particulate matter, certain crystals, immune complexes and activated thrombocytes. Fundamental explorations into the mechanisms of NETosis observed that neutrophil enzyme activity (PAD4, neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase) and signal transduction pathways contribute to the regulation of NETosis. Histones in NET chromatin become modified by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) and cleaved at specific sites by proteases, leading to extensive chromatin externalization. In addition, NETs serve for attachment of bactericidal enzymes including myeloperoxidase, leukocyte proteases, and the cathelicidin LL-37. NETs are decorated with proteases and may thus contribute to tissue destruction. However, the attachment of these enzymes to NET-associated supramolecular structures restricts systemic spread of the proteolytic activity. While the benefit of NETs in an infection appears obvious, NETs also participate as key protagonists in various pathologic states. Therefore, it is essential for NETs to be efficiently cleared; otherwise digestive enzymes may gain access to tissues where inflammation takes place. Persistent NET exposure at sites of inflammation may lead to a further complication: NET antigens may provoke acquired immune responses and, over time, could initiate autoimmune reactions, serve as antigen for nuclear autoantibodies and foster DNA immune complex-related inflammation. Neutrophil products and deiminated proteins comprise an important group of autoantigens in musculoskeletal disorders. Aberrant NET synthesis and/or clearance are often associated with inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Recent evidence also implicates aberrant NET formation in the development of endothelial damage, atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Intravital microscopy provides evidence for conditions that induce NETosis in vivo. Furthermore, NETs can easily be detected in synovial fluid and tissue sections of patients with arthritis and gout. NETosis is thus of interest to researchers who investigate innate immune responses, host-pathogen interactions, chronic inflammatory disorders, cell and vascular biology, biochemistry, and autoimmunity. As we enter the second decade of research on NETosis, it is useful and timely to review the mechanisms and pathways of NET formation, their role in bacterial and fungal defense and their importance as inducers of autoimmune responses.

Carbohydrate Intake in Non-communicable Disease Prevention and Treatment

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ISBN: 9783038978183 9783038978190 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-819-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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In 2011, carbohydrates provided 63% of the dietary energy intake to the world’s population. Historically, carbohydrate-rich diets have been associated with good health and longevity but there has been a move away from traditional carbohydrate-rich diets, with refined carbohydrate taking much criticism for contributing to non-communicable disease. The aim of this Special Issue is to discuss the appropriate use of environmentally sustainable carbohydrate-rich foods in the modern diet in developing and developed countries in the context of prevention and treatment of non-communicable disease.

Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity (2018)

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ISBN: 9783038979326 9783038979333 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-933-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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The interest in the topic of spirituality as a more or less independent dimension of quality of life is continuously growing, and research questions are beginning to change as the field of religiosity changes, becoming more diverse and pluralistic. Addressing new topics in health research also relies on standardized questionnaires. The number of instruments intended to measure specific aspects of spirituality is growing, and it is particularly difficult to evaluate the new instruments. This Special Issue will focus on some of the established instruments (updating them to different languages and cultures), but will also describe the features and intentions of newly-developed instruments, which may potentially be used in larger studies to develop knowledge relevant to spiritual care and practice. This Special Issue will serve as a resource on the instruments used to study the wide range of organized religiosity, the individual experience of the divine, and an open approach in the search for meaning and purpose in life.

Addressing Food and Nutrition Security in Developed Countries

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039212811 / 9783039212828 Year: Pages: 427 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-282-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The Addressing Food and Nutrition Security in Developed Countries Special Issue is a collection of papers from researchers in counties with developed economies who are responding to increasing prevalence of food insecurity. Food insecurity is relatively hidden, and the real extent of the problem is likely to be underestimated in many of these countries. Novel methods to estimate the prevalence of food insecurity in the face of no routine measurement are presented. Population surveys highlight adverse mental health outcomes and new and emerging subgroups that are experiencing food insecurity. Understanding the factors associated with food insecurity and how people cope is extremely important when considering how best to address the problem. Readers can become familiar with the lived experience of food insecurity in some countries—essential intelligence for effective policy and interventions. The extent of food banking operations and the nature of the charitable response in some countries is also described. Country-specific research highlights the importance of understanding the cultural and external environmental context. The influence the cost of food and budgetary tools on diet and food insecurity suggests opportunities for intervention. Researchers calls for social protection and high-quality dignified responses to address this complex public health problem.

Keywords

food insecurity --- charitable food services --- food charity --- food system --- nutrition --- voluntary failure --- INFORMAS --- diet prices --- food affordability --- Pacific diets --- M?ori diets --- food security --- food insecurity --- mental health --- depression --- women --- scoping review --- food bank --- food insecurity --- welfare recipients --- poverty --- food supply --- food aid --- food insecurity --- disaster --- family health --- Hurricane Katrina --- mental health --- physical health --- social support --- Asian Americans --- California Health Interview Survey --- food security --- Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) --- acculturation --- English language use --- food insecurity --- food security --- Indigenous population --- ageing --- Indigenous --- food assistance --- food insecurity --- food charity --- food service --- social enterprise models --- food insecurity --- low-to-middle income --- experience --- mixed methodology research --- rural --- food supply --- food security --- obesity --- food insecurity --- stressors --- stressful life events --- access to food --- food equality --- Healthy Diets ASAP tool --- food security --- food prices --- diet affordability --- rural communities --- INFORMAS --- food insecurity --- monitoring --- surveillance --- determinants --- path diagram --- food security --- food insecurity --- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population --- children --- urban --- experiences --- coping strategies --- household food insecurity --- food poverty --- Scotland --- low income --- families --- children --- women --- older people --- qualitative --- food aid --- charity --- Finland --- welfare state --- food aid recipient --- deservingness --- disadvantages --- inequality --- food security --- diet-related chronic disease --- policy --- food pricing --- food security --- diet price --- food price --- affordability --- food policy --- nutrition policy --- fiscal policy --- obesity prevention --- non-communicable disease --- monitoring and surveillance --- INFORMAS --- reference budgets --- food insecurity --- cost of a healthy diet --- Food-based dietary guidelines --- food insecurity --- food stress --- food affordability --- food insecurity --- food poverty --- prevalence --- household --- food surveys --- secondary data --- Scotland --- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander --- remote --- community store --- fruit and vegetables --- incentive --- subsidy --- food security --- nutrition --- diet --- household food insecurity --- mental health --- sex --- Canadian adults --- food insecurity --- access to food --- social assistance payments --- social security --- Newstart allowance --- food and nutrition security --- research --- values --- co-creation --- trauma-informed --- food insecurity --- hunger --- developed countries --- Sustainable Development Goals --- social determinants --- inequality --- food banks --- food security --- food insecurity --- social assistance --- poverty --- homeless --- nutrition environment --- food stress --- food affordability --- policy --- intervention --- determinants --- food banks --- developed countries

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