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Variability and Individual Differences in Early Social Perception and Social Cognition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198481 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-848-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Over the past three decades mounting evidence has suggested that infants’ social perceptual and social cognitive abilities are considerably richer than was once thought. By the end of the second year of life, infants discriminate faces along various social dimensions, attend to and understand others’ goals and intentions, use the emotions of others to guide their learning and behavior, attribute dispositional characteristics to other agents, and make basic social evaluations. What has also become clear is that there is a great deal of variability in infants’ social perception and cognition. A critical, outstanding question concerns the nature and meaning of such variability. The proposed Research Topic welcomes papers addressing cutting-edge questions regarding variability and individual differences in early social perception and social cognition. The goal of these papers is to investigate overarching questions in this domain, which are necessary to move the field forward. Variability in early social perception and social cognition (among other domains) in infancy and early childhood is often attributed to noise, or overlooked in favor of focusing on age-related changes. Yet, recent work suggests that variability in social perceptual and social cognitive tasks reliably inter-relates, and predicts real-world social behaviors. For example, infants’ everyday experience with different face categories predicts individual differences in face processing, infants’ production of goal-directed actions predicts their simultaneous understanding of these actions, and variability in social attention during the second year of life is related to theory of mind during the preschool years. These findings suggest that variability in performance on social perception and social cognition tasks is not merely a nuisance variable, but, rather, may provide the key to addressing significant questions regarding the nature of infants’ social perception and social cognition, and the processes that underlie developmental change. Acknowledging and closely examining and investigating variability in early social perceptual and social cognitive abilities may represent a powerful approach for understanding development in (at least) two ways. First, variability can signal transitional points in the developmental onset of a given ability. Thus, such variability, and the extent to which variability relates to experience and/or other abilities, can be used to test hypotheses regarding mechanisms that underlie developmental changes. Second, variability can represent more enduring individual differences between infants. In this case, critical questions arise regarding the source of individual differences (that is, what factors shape the emergence of individual differences?) and whether such early individual differences contribute to the development of more advanced and sophisticated forms of social cognition and behavior. The goal of this Research Topic will be to encourage researchers to take variability in early social perception and cognition seriously. Papers that give variability center stage, and are aimed at addressing the value of variability for identifying developmental mechanisms, as well as investigating the existence, source, and antecedents of early individual differences in social perception and social cognition are welcomed. Taken together, the contributed papers will provide integral new information to the study of social perception and social cognition over the first three years of life.

La Fenomenologia dello spirito di Hegel: Problemi e interpretazioni

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Book Series: Scuola delle Scienze Umane e Sociali. Quaderni ISSN: 2499-4774 ISBN: 9788868870393 Year: Volume: 10 Pages: 245 DOI: 10.6093/978-88-6887-039-3 Language: Italian
Publisher: FedOA - Federico II University Press
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-18 23:45:55
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The volume collects essays dedicated to the Phenomenology of the spirit of G.W.F. Hegel and to some of its main interpretations. It gathers critical essays on the Hegelian masterpiece and studies on Hegel’s influences on authors such as Marx, Gentile, Heidegger, Kojève, Paci, Lacan and Brandom. These contributions investigate some categorical nodes that have marked ensuing ethical, theoretical, philosophical-political and later psychoanalytic reflections: dialectic, culture, negation, desire, body, phenomenon, recognition. Therefore, this collection does not intend to mark a specific interpretation of the Hegelian text. Rather, the authors share the effort to illustrate in actu exercito the possibilities given by these two extremes – the text and its interpretation – in which later philosophical culture has moved. Through this movement the Phenomenology of the spirit continues to produce Philosophy, intended as an opportunity and an instrument for the understanding of "one's own time with thought".In addition to the editors, the volume hosts contributions from: Stefania Achella, Rossella Bonito Oliva, Alessio Calabrese, Teresa Caporale, Alessandro De Cesaris, Giuseppe Antonio Di Marco, Gianluca Garelli, Roberto Morani, Anna Pia Ruoppo.

Keywords

Hegel --- Phenomenology --- cognition --- Desire --- Dialectic

Dynamics of Sensorimotor Interactions in Embodied Cognition

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198078 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-807-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
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We interact with our environment through perception and action. Perception is based on sensory components while actions are based on motor components. It is commonly accepted that these sensorimotor components constitute the foundation of knowledge (i.e., percepts and concepts), action and emotion. However, whether or not these components remain part of knowledge, action and emotion is still being debated (see Glenberg, Witt, & Metcalfe, 2013). According to the classical symbolic/abstracted approach of cognition, cognitive processes operate on symbols that are abstracted from these components. Reversely, embodied cognition theory states that knowledge, action and emotion remain grounded in these sensorimotor components (see Wilson, 2002). This embodiment revolution assumes that the interactions between present and absent —but simulated in memory— sensory-motor components determine the emergence of knowledge, action and emotion (Barsalou, 2008). It also implies that perception, memory (in particular conceptual knowledge), action and emotion interact together in a closer way that previously thought (e.g. Riou, Lesourd, Brunel & Versace, 2011; Corveleyn, Lopez-Moliner & Coello, 2012; Vermeulen et al., 2013). Despite the accumulation of empirical evidence showing that perception, memory, action and emotion interact together, less is known about the dynamics of these interactions. It remains to precise the temporal dynamic (when these interactions occur), the neural underlying networks, and the factors that modulate these interactions. The present research topic focuses on the dynamic relationship between present and absent sensorimotor components across perception, memory, action and emotion in a grounded cognition perspective. This research topic aims 1) to demonstrate the validity of the embodied cognition theories 2) to highlight the dynamics of emergence of conceptual knowledge, action and emotion 3) to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art theoretical explanation and/or models.

Histamine in the Brain

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194346 Year: Pages: 99 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-434-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Brain aminergic pathways are organized in parallel and interacting systems, which support a range of functions, from homoeostatic regulations to cognitive, and motivational processes. Despite overlapping functional influences, dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline and histamine systems provide different contributions to these processes. The histaminergic system, long ignored as a major regulator of the sleep-wake cycle, has now been fully acknowledged also as a major coordinator of attention, learning and memory, decision making. Although histaminergic neurons project widely to the whole brain, they are functionally heterogeneous, a feature which may provide the substrate for differential regulation, in a region-specific manner, of other neurotransmitter systems. Neurochemical preclinical studies have clearly shown that histamine interacts and modulates the release of neurotransmitters that are recognized as major modulators of cognitive processing and motivated behaviours. As a consequence, the histamine system has been proposed as a therapeutic target to treat sleep-wake disorders and cognitive dysfunctions that accompany neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory pathologies. Last decades have witnessed an unexpected explosion of interest in brain histamine system, as new receptors have been discovered and selective ligands synthesised. Nevertheless, the complete picture of the histamine systems fine-tuning and its orchestration with other pathways remains rather elusive. This Research Topic is intended to offer an inter-disciplinary forum that will improve our current understanding of the role of brain histamine and provide the fundamentals necessary to drive innovation in clinical practice and to improve the management and treatment of neurological disorders.

Language and Cognition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196272 Year: Pages: 125 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-627-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Interaction between language and cognition remains an unsolved scientific problem. What are the differences in neural mechanisms of language and cognition? Why do children acquire language by the age of six, while taking a lifetime to acquire cognition? What is the role of language and cognition in thinking? Is abstract cognition possible without language? Is language just a communication device, or is it fundamental in developing thoughts? Why are there no animals with human thinking but without human language? Combinations even among 100 words and 100 objects (multiple words can represent multiple objects) exceed the number of all the particles in the Universe, and it seems that no amount of experience would suffice to learn these associations. How does human brain overcome this difficulty?

Cognition across the psychiatric disorder spectrum: From mental health to clinical diagnosis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196531 Year: Pages: 93 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-653-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Psychiatric symptoms are considered to be distributed along a continuum, from good mental health to a diagnosable psychiatric disorder. In the case of psychosis, subclinical psychotic experiences, which can include odd behaviors, strange speech, unusual perceptual experiences and social/emotional withdrawal, are often referred to as schizotypy. Research examining schizotypal traits in non-clinical populations is rapidly expanding. The exploration of schizotypy allows us to identify areas of overlap with psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia and related disorders) at genetic, biological, environmental and psychosocial levels, thus identifying putative risk factors, as well as exploring potentially protective factors. Schizotypy is also a valuable model for exploring cognition as performance is not confounded by issues often present in schizophrenia samples, such as long-term antipsychotic medication usage, social isolation, and recurrent hospitalizations. Investigating cognition is a particularly important area of research as cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia, such as impaired attention, reduced memory and difficulties with executive functions, are a core feature of schizophrenia and strongly related to quality of life and functional outcomes, yet generally respond poorly to current treatment options. The aim of this special Research Topic is to explore the relationship between cognition, schizotypy and the schizophrenia spectrum. The articles in this e-book draw on a variety of perspectives and represent an interesting array of opinions, reviews and empirical studies that begin to answer questions about the similarities and overlaps between schizotypy and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, contributing to our understanding of potential risk factors. Equally important is research that highlights differences between schizotypy and schizophrenia spectrum disorders that may enhance our understanding of potentially protective or adaptive features of schizotypy. Collectively, these articles highlight the exploratory potential of the study of schizotypy, particularly in relation to better understanding cognition across the schizophrenia spectrum.

Macrocognition: The Science and Engineering of Sociotechnical Work Systems

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454181 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-418-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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The increasing complexity of work systems and changes in the nature of workplace technology over the past century have resulted in an exponential shift in the nature of work activities, from physical labor to cognitive work. Modern work systems have many characteristics that make them cognitively complex: They can be highly interactive; comprised of multiple agents and artifacts; information may be limited and distributed across space and time; task goals are frequently ill-defined, conflicting, dynamic and emergent; planning may only be possible at general levels of abstraction or require adaptive solutions; some degree of proficiency or expertise is required; the stakes are often high; and uncertainty, time-constraints and stress are seldom absent. To complicate matters further, cognition in complex work settings is typically constrained by broader professional, organizational, and institutional practice and policy. These features of cognitive work present significant challenges to scientific methodology and theory, and subsequent design of reliable interventions. Historically, philosophers and scientists have attempted to understand the mental activities experienced during cognitive work at multiple levels of analysis using divergent methods. Some have examined cognition at an associative, contextual, functional or holistic level, relying on naturalistic methods to understand the higher mental processes as they work in harmony during goal-directed behavior. Others have embraced experimental methods and favored internal over external validity, often reducing cognition to a psychology of fundamental acts, such as short-term memory access with millisecond shifts in attention. More recently, Macrocognition has evolved as a complementary paradigm. Macrocognitive researchers have studied the cognitive functions and processes associated with skilled, adaptive, collaborative, and resilient cognitive work in the context of the aforementioned complexities of psychotechnical and sociotechnical work systems. Typically, this research has been carried out using cognitive task analytic techniques that draw on both naturalistic and (quasi-)experimental methods. The primary goals of research in Macrocognition are to better understand cognitive adaptations to complexity, to increase our theoretical understanding of the organism-environment relations by studying the mapping between cognitive work and real-world demands, and to promote use-inspired research capable of improving system performance.

New Boundaries Between Aging, Cognition, and Emotions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456659 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-665-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Numerous studies have reported age-related differences for emotional information. For example, when, compared to younger adults, older adults reveal a relative preference in attention and memory for positive over negative information. One explanation places emphasis on an emotion processing preference in older adults that reflects their socioemotional self-relevant goals.Based on evidence from behavioral and neuroscientific research, researchers have realized that it is necessary to propose a new conceptual framework to describe the relationship between cognition and emotion.Given the growing body of research focused on the interaction between emotions and cognition, our purpose is to provide a picture of the state of the art of the interaction between aging, cognition and emotions.

The role of body and environment in cognition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192625 Year: Pages: 275 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-262-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Recent evidence has shown many ways in which our bodies and the environment influence cognition. In this Research Topic we aim to develop our understanding of cognition by considering the diverse and dynamic relationship between the language we use, our bodily perceptions, and our actions and interactions in the broader environment. There are already many empirical effects illustrating the continuity of mind- body-environment: manipulating body posture influences diverse areas such as mood, hormonal responses, and perception of risk; directing attention to a particular sensory modality can affect language processing, signal detection, and memory performance; placing implicit cues in the environment can impact upon social behaviours, moral judgements, and economic decision making. This Research Topic includes papers that explore the question of how our bodies and the environment influence cognition, such as how we mentally represent the world around us, understand language, reason about abstract concepts, make judgements and decisions, and interact with objects and other people. Contributions focus on empirical, theoretical, methodological or modelling issues as well as opinion pieces or contrasting perspectives. Topic areas include, perception and action, social cognition, emotion, language processing, modality-specific representations, spatial representations, gesture, atypical embodiment, perceptual simulation, cognitive modelling and perspectives on the future of embodiment.

Perspective Taking: Building a neurocognitive framework for integrating the "social" and the "spatial"

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194179 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-417-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Background: Interacting with other people involves spatial awareness of one’s own body and the other’s body and viewpoint. In the past, social cognition has focused largely on belief reasoning, which is abstracted away from spatial and bodily representations, while there is a strong tradition of work on spatial and object representation which does not consider social interactions. These two domains have flourished independently. A small but growing body of research examines how awareness of space and body relates to the ability to interpret and interact with others. This also builds on the growing awareness that many cognitive processes are embodied, which could be of relevance for the integration of the social and spatial domains: Online mental transformations of spatial representations have been shown to rely on simulated body movements and various aspects of social interaction have been related to the simulation of a conspecific’s behaviour within the observer’s bodily repertoire. Both dimensions of embodied transformations or mappings seem to serve the purpose of establishing alignment between the observer and a target. In spatial cognition research the target is spatially defined as a particular viewpoint or frame of reference (FOR), yet, in social interaction research another viewpoint is occupied by another’s mind, which crucially requires perspective taking in the sense of considering what another person experiences from a different viewpoint. Perspective taking has been studied in different ways within developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience over the last few decades, yet, integrative approaches for channelling all information into a unified account of perspective taking and viewpoint transformations have not been presented so far. Aims: This Research Topic aims to bring together the social and the spatial, and to highlight findings and methods which can unify research across areas. In particular, the topic aims to advance our current theories and set the stage for future developments of the field by clarifying and linking theoretical concepts across disciplines. Scope: The focus of this Research Topic is on the SPATIAL and the SOCIAL, and we anticipate that all submissions will touch on both aspects and will explicitly attempt to bridge conceptual gaps. Social questions could include questions of how people judge another person’s viewpoint or spatial capacities, or how they imagine themselves from different points of view. Spatial questions could include consideration of different physical configurations of the body and the arrangement of different viewpoints, including mental rotation of objects or viewpoints that have social relevance. Questions could also relate to how individual differences (in personality, sex, development, culture, species etc.) influence or determine social and spatial perspective judgements. Many different methods can be used to explore perspective taking, including mental chronometry, behavioural tasks, EEG/MEG and fMRI, child development, neuropsychological patients, virtual reality and more. Bringing together results and approaches from these different domains is a key aim of this Research Topic. We welcome submissions of experimental papers, reviews and theory papers which cover these topics.

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