Search results: Found 25

Listing 1 - 10 of 25 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by
Perception and Cognition: Interactions in the Ageing Brain

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199372 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-937-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Healthy ageing can lead to declines in both perceptual and cognitive functions. Impaired perception, such as that resulting from hearing loss or reduced visual or tactile resolution, increases demands on ‘higher-level’ cognitive functions to cope or compensate. It is possible, for example, to use focused attention to overcome perceptual limitations. Unfortunately, cognitive functions also decline in old age. This can mean that perceptual impairments are exacerbated by cognitive decline, and vice versa, but also means that interventions aimed at one type of decline can lead to improvements in the other. Just as improved cognition can ameliorate perceptual deficits, improving the stimulus can help offset cognitive deficits. For example, making directions and routes easy to follow can help compensate for declines in navigation abilities. In this Topic, we bring together papers from both auditory and visual researchers that address the interaction between perception and cognition in the ageing brain. Many of the studies demonstrate that a broadening of representations or increased reliance on gist underlie perceptual and cognitive age-related declines. There is also clear evidence that impaired perception is associated with poor cognition although, encouragingly, it can also be seen that good perception is associated with better cognition. Compensatory cognitive strategies were less successful in improving perception than might be expected. We also present papers which highlight important methodological considerations that are required when studying the older brain.

Keywords

older --- Elderly --- visual --- auditory --- Ageing --- Cognition --- cross-modal --- Compensation --- training

Neuronal Self-Defense: Compensatory Mechanisms in Neurodegenerative Disorders

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197590 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-759-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the progressive loss of specific populations of neurons with consequent deterioration of brain's function and dramatic impact on human behavior. At present, there are no effective cures for neurodegenerative diseases. Because unambiguous diagnosis is possible only after manifestation of symptoms, when a large proportion of neurons has been already lost, therapies are necessarily confined to alleviation of symptoms. Development of cures halting the disease course is hampered by our rudimentary understanding of the etiopathology. Most neurodegenerative disorders are sporadic and age-related and - even for those of known genetic origin - the mechanisms influencing disease onset and progression have not been fully characterized. The different diseases, however, share important similarities in the mechanisms responsible for neuronal loss, which is caused by a combination of endogenous and exogenous challenges. Trophic deprivation, oxidative stress, accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates, and bioenergetics defects have been described in most, if not all, neurodegenerative disease. To counterbalance these noxious stimuli cells deploy, at least during the initial pathogenic states, intrinsic neuroprotective responses. These are general compensatory mechanisms, common to several neurodegenerative conditions, which reprogram cellular physiology to overcome stress. Adaptation includes strategies to optimize energetic resources, for instance reduction of rRNA synthesis to repress translation, suppression of transcription, and bioenergetics and metabolic redesign. Additional mechanisms include potentiation of antioxidant capacity, induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and activation of protein quality control systems and autophagy. Ineffective execution of these compensatory strategies severely threatens cellular homeostasis and favors onset of pathology. Therefore, a better understanding of these "buffering" mechanisms and of their interconnections may help to devise more effective therapeutic tools to prolong neuronal survival and activity, independently of the original genetic mutations and stress insults. This Research Topic focuses on the initial compensatory responses protecting against failure of those mechanisms that sustain neuronal survival and activity. The collection intends to summarize the state-of-the-art in this field and to propose novel research contributes, with the ultimate goal of inspiring innovative studies aimed to contrast progression of neurodegenerative diseases.

Konzeptionelle Untersuchung zur Neigekompensation von Stromabnehmern

Author:
Book Series: Karlsruher Schriftenreihe Fahrzeugsystemtechnik / Institut für Fahrzeugsystemtechnik ISSN: 18696058 ISBN: 9783731503873 Year: Volume: 36 Pages: XVII, 197 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000047155 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Interoperability of pantographs is being limited by different pantograph head profiles in the European rail networks. In this regard, the researched aspect leads to the question if a smaller pantograph head can be used in a network with originary wider head widths. The other part is focused on the technical realization of the swing compensation for pantographs mounted on tilting trains.

La ville compacte remise en cause ? Formes urbaines et mobilités de loisirs

Author:
ISBN: 9782889301140 Year: Pages: 440 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_624512 Language: French
Publisher: Editions Alphil Presses universitaires suisses Grant: Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) - OAPEN-CH - 170316
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-11 11:01:15
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Finally the weekend! The time to escape the dense city to enjoy quieter en-vironments? While leisure occupies a central place in our lifestyles, what is the relationship between urban styles and mobility? Are the inhabitants of city centers more mobile, seeking a greener environment in which to spend their free time? This would be the "barbecue effect," which invites stopping advocating for density and upgrading to suburban styles. This book explores this controversy by examining the cases of Geneva and Zurich, to answer some questions: Does the barbecue effect really exist?

Management Accountants’ Business Orientation and Involvement in Incentive Compensation

Author:
Book Series: Controlling & Business Accounting ISBN: 9783631606872 Year: Pages: 193 Language: English
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:35
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Changing roles of management accountants have been intensively discussed in business practice and academic research. The objective of this empirical study is to gain a deeper understanding of management accountants’ business orientation and extended tasks. Based on data collected from the top 1,500 companies in Germany, results reveal that especially subjective norms have a strong impact on the practice of management accountants acting business-oriented. Furthermore, the results reinforce the frequently postulated positive effect of management accountants’ business orientation. The analyses also show positive associations between the involvement of management accountants in incentive compensation, the effort effects of incentive schemes, and firm performance.

Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis: From Molecular to System Level, from Adaptation to Maladaptation

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197644 Year: Pages: 72 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-764-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This research topic aims at providing a state of the art update on neuroplasticity in humans with multiple sclerosis. It summarizes advances in plasticity research as achieved by a variety of techniques, in the motor as well as visual and cognitive domain. We are confident that this collection of articles broadens the view across systems and techniques and widens our understanding of this exciting field of research.

Motion Compensation for Near-Range Synthetic Aperture Radar Applications

Author:
Book Series: Karlsruher Forschungsberichte aus dem Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik und Elektronik ISSN: 18684696 ISBN: 9783866449060 Year: Volume: 67 Pages: XII, 149 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000029383 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The work focuses on the analysis of influences of motion errors on near-range SAR applications and design of specific motion measuring and compensation algorithms. First, a novel metric to determine the optimum antenna beamwidth is proposed. Then, a comprehensive investigation of influences of motion errors on the SAR image is provided. On this ground, new algorithms for motion measuring and compensation using low cost inertial measurement units (IMU) are developed and successfully demonstrated.

Design and Applications of Coordinate Measuring Machines

Author:
ISBN: 9783038422761 9783038422778 Year: Pages: XII, 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-277-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2016-11-11 18:50:12
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) have been conventionally used in industry for 3-dimensional and form-error measurements of macro parts for many years. Ever since the first CMM, developed by Ferranti Co. in the late 1950s, they have been regarded as versatile measuring equipment, yet many CMMs on the market still have inherent systematic errors due to the violation of the Abbe Principle in its design. Current CMMs are only suitable for part tolerance above 10 μm. With the rapid advent of ultraprecision technology, multi-axis machining, and micro/nanotechnology over the past twenty years, new types of ultraprecision and micro/nao-CMMs are urgently needed in all aspects of society.This Special Issue accepted papers revealing novel designs and applications of CMMs, including structures, probes, miniaturization, measuring paths, accuracy enhancement, error compensation, etc. Detailed design principles in sciences, and technological applications in high-tech industries, were required for submission.Topics covered, but were not limited to, the following areas:1.New types of CMMs, such as Abbe-free, multi-axis, cylindrical, parallel, etc.2.New types of probes, such as touch-trigger, scanning, hybrid, non-contact, microscopic, etc.3.New types of Micro/nano-CMMs.4.New types of measuring path strategy, such as collision avoidance, free-form surface, aspheric surface, etc.5.New types of error compensation strategy.

Detection and Tracking of Targets in Forward-Looking InfraRed (FLIR) Imagery

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038420521 9783038420538 Year: Pages: XIV, 228 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-053-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 07:34:37
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Detection and tracking of targets in forward looking infrared (FLIR) imagery are challenging tasks. IR sensors often provide low signal-to-noise ratio and heavy background cluttering images. Non-stationary cameras can introduce further challenges, because detection and tracking might make it necessary to properly deal with sensor ego-motion through suitable estimation and compensation techniques. Moreover, further issues are posed by imagery with multiple and possibly moving target and non-target objects, which can blend into the background, change their signature, size, shape, and even overlap during their motion. Finally, specific applications could introduce cumbersome real-time constraints, thus requiring tracking techniques with a reduced computational footprint.The objective of this Special Issue is to invite high state-of-the-art research contributions, tutorials, and position papers that address the broad challenges faced in analysis and processing of FLIR imagery. Original papers describing completed and unpublished work that are not currently under review by any other journal/magazine/conference/special issue are solicited.

Digitale Kultur zum Pauschaltarif?

Author:
Book Series: Abhandlungen zum Urheber- und Kommunikationsrecht ISBN: 9783845283135 Year: Volume: 62 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5771/9783845283135 Language: DE
Publisher: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-27 12:51:34
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

"Is the copyright law in the information society going to collapse or may a “cultural flatrate” produce relief? In view of the plentiful everyday occurrence of unauthorized and unpaid utilization of digital creative goods, the paper names the deficient situation of German and international copyright law regarding the different interests of copyright holders and users and presents possible perspectives.The legal classification and feasibility of lump-sum payment models that even in the political discussion apply to be an assumedly simple solution of the so-called digital dilemma is surveyed within the work. At the end, an ambitious but non-illusory vision of a European “cultural flatrate” is proposed.Dr. jur. Seyavash Amini has been a scholarship holder of the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition in Munich, he founded the IVOCAT GmbH with focus on Intellectual Property Management in Hanover and works as legal advisor and entrepreneur."

Listing 1 - 10 of 25 << page
of 3
>>
Sort by