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Olfactory Consciousness across Disciplines

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194223 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-422-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Our sense of smell pervasively influences our most common behaviors and daily experience, yet little is known about olfactory consciousness. Over the past decade and a half research in both the fields of Consciousness Studies and Olfaction has blossomed, however, olfactory consciousness has received little to no attention. The olfactory systems unique anatomy, functional organization, sensory processes, and perceptual experiences offers a fecund area for exploring all aspects of consciousness, as well as a external perspective for re-examining the assumptions of contemporary theories of consciousness. It has even been suggested that the olfactory system may represent the minimal neuroanatomy that is required for conscious processing. Given the variegated nature of research on consciousness, we include original papers concerning the nature of olfactory consciousness. The scope of the special edition widely incorporates olfaction as it relates to Consciousness, Awareness, Attention, Phenomenal- or Access-Consciousness, and Qualia. Research concerning olfaction and cross-modal integration as it relates to conscious experience is also address. As the initial foray into this uncharted area of research, we include contributions from across all disciplines contributing to cognitive neuroscience, including neurobiology, neurology, psychology, philosophy, linguistics, and computer sciences. It is our hope that this Research Topic will serve as the impetus for future interdisciplinary research on olfaction and consciousness.

The Universe, Life and Everything...Dialogues on our Changing Understanding of Reality

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789462987401 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.5117/9789462987401 Language: English
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-11 11:01:56
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The way we understand the world we live in is changing. Our traditional understanding is being challenged by developments in physics, including quantum mechanics, and our inability to explain certain complex phenomena such as consciousness. In this book, scholars from a variety of backgrounds discuss how our understanding of our world is expanding to include such phenomena.

Keywords

reality --- meaning --- science --- consciousness

Transitions Between Consciousness and Unconsciousness

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454310 Year: Pages: 219 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-431-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Over the last years, a large body of experimental data have been generated in the attempt to understand consciousness and its neural underpinnings. In this respect, particular interest has been paid to the attempt to distinguish between conscious experience and unconscious states which however may still be considered as mental states (e.g., in virtue of their representational nature). This is of course not without reason. A deep understanding of that which specifically characterizes conscious states, including neural correlates and cognitive functions, may crucially inform the ambition of understanding the relation between experience and the physical world. Nevertheless, the question has historically been challenged by the fact that consciousness is available in the first person only – not to other people, including scientists. Different methodological traditions and choices have led to quite different understandings of how conscious and unconscious states relate, and diverse empirical work has been inspired and guided by various cognitive and neurobiological theories of consciousness. The very diverse viewpoints include such different positions as the idea that unconscious states are associated with the very same functional characteristics as conscious states, and the idea that no informational state that is available for action can be completely unconscious. The Research Topic “Transitions between consciousness and unconsciousness” is therefore devoted to this particular question, how to understand the relation and transition between consciousness and unconsciousness. We hope that the reader will find the collected articles both informative and thought-provoking, and that this Research Topic will stimulate the scientific debate.

Beyond the simple contrastive analysis: Appropriate experimental approaches for unraveling the neural basis of conscious experience

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195473 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-547-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Contrasting conditions with and without conscious experience has served consciousness research well. However, research based on this simple contrast has led to controversies about the neural basis of conscious experience. One key reason for these ongoing debates seems to be that the simple contrast between conditions with and without consciousness is not specific for unraveling the neural basis of conscious experience, but rather also leads to other processes that precede or follow it. Acknowledging this methodological problem implies that some of the previous research findings about the neural underpinnings of conscious experience are actually reflecting the prerequisites and consequences rather than the direct correlates of conscious perception. Thus, it is required to re-evaluate the previous results to find out which of them are telling us anything about the neural basis of consciousness. But first and foremost, to overcome this methodological problem we need new experimental paradigms that go beyond the simple contrastive analysis or find the ways how some older but well forgotten paradigms may foster a new look at this emerging problem. Accordingly, this research topic is looking for empirical and theoretical contributions that: 1) envision new and suitable experimental approaches to study consciousness that are free from the limitations of the simple contrastive analysis; 2) provide empirical data that help to separate the neural correlates of conscious experience from the prerequisites and consequences of it; 3) help to re-assess previous research findings about the neural correlates of conscious perception in the light of the methodological problems with the traditional contrastive analysis. We hope that the theoretical insights and experimental approaches collected within this Research Topic help us to gain a more refined understanding of the neural basis of conscious experience.

General Anesthesia: From Theory to Experiments

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197491 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-749-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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General anesthesia is a standard medical procedure in today's hospital practice. Although in most cases the administration of anesthetics does not affect severely the patients health, side effects of anesthesia are well-known, such as nausea or cognitive impairment. Moreover 1-2 out of 1000 patients under surgery report a partial wake up from anesthesia during the operation. The reason for such a partial lack of control of depth of anesthesia is that medical procedures are highly optimized based on experience but the neural dynamics during general anesthesia is far from being understood. One reason for this lack of understanding is both the complex neural interactions of neurons on different spatial and temporal scales and the poorly understood action of anesthetics on neural populations. For instance, anesthetic agents act on synaptic receptors on a microscopic scale essentially evoking a macroscopic change of population activity, such as Local Field Potentials, EEG/MEG or resulting change of cerebral blood flow. This population effect then triggers the loss of consciousness in patients. This Research Topic aims to address recent theoretical and experimental advances in the field. The theoretical and experimental studies represent a good overview over the current state of research in the field and provides a deeper insight into the underlying neural mechanisms. Each article in the issue focusses on a specific current research topic in general anesthesia research and several articles introduce to the topic in a pedagogical way. The issue covers various types of anaesthesia and the most important topics in the field, such as (but not limited to) recent advances in theoretical models and states of consciousness reflected in experimental data, the connectivity changes observed during anesthesia or effects of specific drugs on brain activity. The introduction style of the papers facilitates the reader to understand the background of the research aspect and even allows readers not familiar with general anesthesia research to enter the research domain. Hence the Research Topic aims to provide on one hand an overview of the current state of the art and on the other hand a good starting point for new researchers in the field.

Moving Ourselves, Moving Others

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Consciousness & Emotion Book Series ISBN: 9789027241566 Year: Language: English
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101139
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-04 11:02:16
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The close relationship between motion (bodily movement) and emotion (feelings) is not an etymological coincidence. While moving ourselves, we move others; in observing others move – we are moved ourselves. The fundamentally interpersonal nature of mind and language has recently received due attention, but the key role of (e)motion in this context has remained something of a blind spot. The present book rectifies this gap by gathering contributions from leading philosophers, psychologists and linguists working in the area. Framed by an introducing prologue and a summarizing epilogue the volume elaborates a dynamical, active view of emotion, along with an affect-laden view of motion – and explores their significance for consciousness, intersubjectivity, and language. As such, it contributes to the emerging interdisciplinary field of mind science, transcending hitherto dominant computationalist and cognitivist approaches.

Literatūrinė Kauno regiono savimonė

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ISBN: 9789955126812 Year: Pages: 94 p. Language: Lithuanian
Publisher: Vytautas Magnus University
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-11 07:59:56
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The articles of the book reveal the results of the research made on literary self-consciousness of Kaunas region, reflecting specific transformations of the places written from the 19th century till nowadays. To the problems stipulated by the concepts of the region, place and space are being analysed from the point of view of naratology, cultural geography and bioregionalism. The creative works written during the period from the 19th century till the beginning of the 21th century are being analysed as well, including the texts of Lithuanian literature for children.

Human and Machine Consciousness

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ISBN: 9781783743001 9781783742981 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 234 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0107 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-07 14:24:25
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Consciousness is widely perceived as one of the most fundamental, interesting and difficult problems of our time. However, we still know next to nothing about the relationship between consciousness and the brain and we can only speculate about the consciousness of animals and machines.Human and Machine Consciousness presents a new foundation for the scientific study of consciousness. It sets out a bold interpretation of consciousness that neutralizes the philosophical problems and explains how we can make scientific predictions about the consciousness of animals, brain-damaged patients and machines.Gamez interprets the scientific study of consciousness as a search for mathematical theories that map between measurements of consciousness and measurements of the physical world. We can use artificial intelligence to discover these theories and they could make accurate predictions about the consciousness of humans, animals and artificial systems. Human and Machine Consciousness also provides original insights into unusual conscious experiences, such as hallucinations, religious experiences and out-of-body states, and demonstrates how ‘designer’ states of consciousness could be created in the future.Gamez explains difficult concepts in a clear way that closely engages with scientific research. His punchy, concise prose is packed with vivid examples, making it suitable for the educated general reader as well as philosophers and scientists. Problems are brought to life in colourful illustrations and a helpful summary is given at the end of each chapter. The endnotes provide detailed discussions of individual points and full references to the scientific and philosophical literature.

Consciousness and Action Control

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193158 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-315-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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The basic nuts and bolts underlying human behavior remain mysterious from a scientific point of view. Everyday acts - naming an object, suppressing the urge to say something, or grabbing a waiter’s attention with a “cappuccino, please” - remain difficult to understand from a mechanistic standpoint. Despite these challenges, research has begun to illuminate, not only the basic processes underlying human action production, but the role of conscious processing in the control of behavior. This Research Topic, “Consciousness and the Control of Action,” is devoted to surveying and synthesizing these developments from disparate fields of study.

The Roots of Nationalism: National Identity Formation in Early Modern Europe, 1600-1815

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Book Series: Heritage and Memory Studies ISBN: 9789462981072 Year: DOI: 10.5117/9789462981072 Language: English
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-16 11:01:15
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This collection brings together scholars from a wide range of disciplines to offer perspectives on national identity formation in various European contexts between 1600 and 1815. Contributors challenge the dichotomy between modernists and traditionalists in nationalism studies through an emphasis on continuity rather than ruptures in the shaping of European nations in the period, while also offering an overview of current debates in the field and case studies on a number of topics, including literature, historiography, and cartography.

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