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Cycling Futures

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781925261172 Year: Pages: 472 DOI: 10.20851/cycling-futures Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-04 07:50:41
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Australasian researchers, practitioners, policy makers and community members are engaged in a global discussion on the role of cycling in addressing these concerns. Contributors to this book report on and extend this discussion as they explore the insights generated locally and internationally on the past, present and future of cycling. The focus of the first half of the book is largely on the current engagement with cycling, challenges faced by existing and would-be cyclists and the issues cycling might address. The second half of the book is concerned with strategies and processes of change. Contributors working from different ontological positions reflect on changing socio-spatial relations to enable the broadest possible participation in cycling.'

Regulation of Endurance Performance: New Frontiers

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453290 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-329-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Successful endurance performance requires the integration of multiple physiological and psychological systems, working together to regulate exercise intensity in a way that will reduce time taken or increase work done. The systems that ultimately limit performance of the task are hotly contested, and may depend on a variety of factors including the type of task, the environment, external influences, training status of the individual and a host of psychological constructs. These factors can be studied in isolation, or inclusively as a whole-body or integrative system. A reductionist approach has traditionally been favoured, leading to a greater understanding and emphasis on muscle and cardiovascular physiology, but the role of the brain and how this integrates multiple systems is gaining momentum. However, these differing approaches may have led to false dichotomy, and now with better understanding of both fields, there is a need to bring these perspectives together. The divergent viewpoints of the limitations to human performance may have partly arisen because of the different exercise models studied. These can broadly be defined as open loop (where a fixed intensity is maintained until task disengagement), or closed loop (where a fixed distance is completed in the fastest time), which may involve whole-body or single-limb exercise. Closed loop exercise allows an analysis of how exercise intensity is self-regulated (i.e. pacing), and thus may better reflect the demands of competitive endurance performance. However, whilst this model can monitor changes in pacing, this is often at the expense of detecting subtle differences in the measured physiological or psychological variables of interest. Open loop exercise solves this issue, but is limited by its more restrictive exercise model. Nonetheless, much can be learnt from both experimental approaches when these constraints are recognised. Indeed, both models appear equally effective in examining changes in performance, and so the researcher should select the exercise model which can most appropriately test the study hypothesis. Given that a multitude of both internal (e.g. muscle fatigue, perception of effort, dietary intervention, pain etc.) and external (e.g. opponents, crowd presence, course topography, extrinsic reward etc.) factors likely contribute to exercise regulation and endurance performance, it may be that both models are required to gain a comprehensive understanding. Consequently, this research topic seeks to bring together papers on endurance performance from a variety of paradigms and exercise models, with the overarching aim of comparing, examining and integrating their findings to better understand how exercise is regulated and how this may (or may not) limit performance.

Keywords

Pacing --- Performance --- Fatigue --- Exercise --- Brain --- Muscle --- Running --- Cycling --- Triathlon --- Training

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Nutrition of Trees and Forests

ISBN: 9783038421856 9783038421863 Year: Pages: 254
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-12 11:52:27
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Intracellular biomineralization in bacteria

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192724 Year: Pages: 135 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-272-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Oceanography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Bacteria can sequester metals and other ions intracellularly in various forms ranging from poorly ordered deposits to well- ordered mineral crystals. Magnetotactic bacteria provide one example of such intracellular deposits. They synthesize intracellular magnetic minerals of magnetite (Fe3O4) and/or greigite (Fe3S4) magnetosomes which are generally less than 150 nm and organized into one or multiple chain structures. The magnetosome chain(s) act like a compass needle to facilitate the navigation of magnetotactic bacteria by using the Earth's magnetic field. Due to their ubiquitous distribution in aquatic and sedimentary environments, magnetotactic bacteria play important roles in global iron cycling. Other intracellular mineral phases have been evidenced in bacteria such as As2S3, CaCO3, CdS, Se(0) or various metal phosphates which may play as well a significant role in the geochemical cycle of these elements. However, in contrast to magnetotactic bacteria, the biological and environmental function of these particles remains a matter of debate. In recent years, such intracellularly biomineralizaing bacteria have become an attractive model system for investigating the molecular mechanisms of organelle-like structure formation in prokaryotic cells. The geological significance of intracellular biomineralization is important; spectacular examples are fossil magnetosomes that may significantly contribute to the bulk magnetization of sediments and act as potential archives of paleoenvironmental changes. In addition, intracellular mineral deposits formed by bacteria have potentially versatile applications in biotechnological and biomedical fields. After more than four decades of research, the knowledge on intracellularly biomineralizing bacteria has greatly improved. The aim of this Research Topic is to highlight recent advances in our understanding of intracellular biomineralization by bacteria. Magnetotactic bacteria are a system of choice for that topic but other intracellularly biomineralizing bacteria may bring a unique perspective on that process. Research papers, reviews, perspectives, and opinion papers on (i) the diversity and ecology of intracellularly biomineralizing bacteria, (ii) the molecular mechanisms of intracellular biomineralization, (iii) the chemo- and magneto-taxis behaviors of magnetotactic bacteria, (iv) the involvement of intracellularly biomineralizing bacteria in local or global biogeochemical cycling, (v) the paleoenvironmental reconstructions and paleomagnetic signals based on fossil magnetosomes, (vi) and the applications of intracellular minerals in biomaterial and biotechnology were welcomed.

Systems biology and ecology of microbial mat communities

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197934 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-793-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
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Microbial mat communities consist of dense populations of microorganisms embedded in exopolymers and/or biomineralized solid phases, and are often found in mm-cm thick assemblages, which can be stratified due to environmental gradients such as light, oxygen or sulfide. Microbial mat communities are commonly observed under extreme environmental conditions, deriving energy primarily from light and/or reduced chemicals to drive autotrophic fixation of carbon dioxide. Microbial mat ecosystems are regarded as living analogues of primordial systems on Earth, and they often form perennial structures with conspicuous stratifications of microbial populations that can be studied in situ under stable conditions for many years. Consequently, microbial mat communities are ideal natural laboratories and represent excellent model systems for studying microbial community structure and function, microbial dynamics and interactions, and discovery of new microorganisms with novel metabolic pathways potentially useful in future industrial and/or medical applications. Due to their relative simplicity and organization, microbial mat communities are often excellent testing grounds for new technologies in microbiology including micro-sensor analysis, stable isotope methodology and modern genomics. Integrative studies of microbial mat communities that combine modern biogeochemical and molecular biological methods with traditional microbiology, macro-ecological approaches, and community network modeling will provide new and detailed insights regarding the systems biology of microbial mats and the complex interplay among individual populations and their physicochemical environment. These processes ultimately control the biogeochemical cycling of energy and/or nutrients in microbial systems. Similarities in microbial community function across different types of communities from highly disparate environments may provide a deeper basis for understanding microbial community dynamics and the ecological role of specific microbial populations. Approaches and concepts developed in highly-constrained, relatively stable natural communities may also provide insights useful for studying and understanding more complex microbial communities.

Nutrient Cycling and Plant Nutrition in Forest Ecosystems

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038423850 9783038423843 Year: Pages: XII, 252 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-30 09:18:22
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Nutrient cycling is essential for maintaining nutrient supply to forest plants and for enhancing forest productivity. Nutrient cycling is also strongly linked to greenhouse gas emissions and thus to global climate change. Nutrient cycling and plant nutrition can be severely affected by anthropogenic and natural disturbance regimes. This Special Issue will provide an avenue to publish recent progress on research on nutrient cycling and plant nutrition in forest ecosystems and how nutrient cycling and plant nutrition are affected by disturbance regimes such as harvesting, atmospheric deposition and climate change.

Atmospheric Mercury

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ISBN: 9783038422907 9783038422914 Year: Pages: XVI, 290 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-291-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-11-11 19:12:49
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Mercury is a serious environmental toxin that is distributed globally by large-scale atmospheric circulations. The chapters in this book cover measurements of speciated atmospheric mercury, regional modeling, continental-scale distributions across the U.S. and Canada, large-scale distributions in the free troposphere, and changes in wet deposition across the U.S. The diverse topics give snap-shots of current research areas in atmospheric mercury and some insight into policy issues in Europe. Together, the work demonstrates the complexity of atmospheric mercury and provides aspects on measuring and modeling it. Much work is needed in the future to unravel the chemical forms of oxidized atmospheric mercury and how it is intertwined in global cycling of mercury. The complexities of this work are extremely challenging for emerging atmospheric chemists.

Pathophysiology of the Basal Ganglia and Movement Disorders: Gaining New Insights from Modeling and Experimentation to Influence the Clinic

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453177 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-317-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The basal ganglia constitute a group of subcortical structures, highly interconnected among themselves, as well as with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and other brain areas. These nuclei play a central role in the control of voluntary movement, and their specific pathology comprises the group of diseases known as movement disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, dystonia and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, among others. Additionally, the presence of a number of circuits within the basal ganglia related to non-motor functions has been acknowledged. Currently, the basal ganglia are thought to participate in cognitive, limbic and learning functions. Moreover, disorders related to the basal ganglia are known to involve a number of complex, non-motor symptoms and syndromes (e.g. compulsive and addictive behavior). In the light of this evidence, it is becoming clear that our knowledge about the basal ganglia needs to be revised, and that new pathophysiological models of movement disorders are needed. In this context, the study of the pathophysiology of the basal ganglia and the treatment of their pathology is becoming increasingly interdisciplinary. Nowadays, an appropriate approach to the study of these problems must necessarily involve the use of complex mathematical modeling, computer simulations, basic research (ranging from biomolecular studies to animal experimentation), and clinical research. This research topic aims to bring together the most recent advances related to the pathophysiology of the basal ganglia and movement disorders.

Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry of Precious Metals

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038973461 9783038973478 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-347-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biotechnology --- Ecology --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-20 10:57:53
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Precious metals continue to have economic and sociocultural importance, as their usage evolves and diversifies over time. Today, the industrial application of precious metals is increasing with the development of scientific and technological innovations. Especially, the biological cycling of these metals is receiving more and more attention, as the microbiota may be key to a range of issues regarding exploration, ore-processing and metallurgy, and the processing of electron waste. In this volume, we focus on enhancing the fundamental understanding of the biological processes that drive noble metal cycling and examine how this knowledge may be turned into biotechnolical applications.

Nature, Place & People:Forging Connections through Neighbourhood Landscape Design

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9789813236035 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.1142/10879 Language: English
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Co.
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-02 05:50:37
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Neighbourhood landscapes are the quintessential forms of urban landscapes in most cities worldwide. They are pervasive, and hence experienced by the large majority of urban dwellers in their everyday life. More than parks, nature reserves or nature areas which are visited as destinations, neighbourhood landscapes provide the most immediate, frequent and convenient form of nature experienced by urban dwellers on a daily basis. They are also valuable as social spaces to bring residents together, foster social ties, and strengthen communities. Despite their importance, surprisingly little has been written to guide the planning and design of neighbourhood landscapes.This book is written for a specific purpose, to illustrate how the design of neighbourhood landscapes helps to deliver more benefits for urban dwellers and, at the same time, protect ecosystems that facilitate human well-being. This is in turn important as the synergistic relationships between human well-being, quality of biophysical urban environment, and health of human–environment interactions fundamentally underpin urban sustainability. The authors emphasize the role neighbourhood landscapes play in forging connections between people and nature, people and people, and people and place. Most of all, the book highlights the role of focusing on people in this endeavour, as it is only when landscapes are appropriately designed, and when people recognize these benefits, that they become valued and protected as a community resource.This book is organized into two parts. Part 1 focuses on the conceptual foundations that underpin the neighbourhood landscape design guidelines being developed. In this section, the authors describe the key concepts relating functions of neighbourhood landscapes to the key urban development goals of sustainability, liveability and reliance; how they can be represented in a framework; and how a synthesis of current knowledge of cities as socio-ecological systems helps to identify principles that can guide the designing of neighbourhood landscapes. Part 2 is more application focused, and is centred on neighbourhood landscape design guidelines inspired by the concept of ecosystem services. The guidelines consist of design approaches, practical strategies, design targets and performance monitoring indicators for tracking the performance of neighbourhood landscapes. The book is written for readers in academia and design practice, and anyone who has a role in shaping neighbourhood landscapes for the benefit of urban dwellers.

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