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Danger Signals Triggering Immune Response and Inflammation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452842 Year: Pages: 205 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-284-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Abstract

The immune system detects "danger" through a series of what we call pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), working in concert with both positive and negative signals derived from other tissues. PAMPs are molecules associated with groups of pathogens that are small molecular motifs conserved within a class of microbes. They are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and other pattern recognition receptors. A vast array of different types of molecules can serve as PAMPs, including glycans and glycoconjugates. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), endotoxins found on the cell membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, are considered to be the prototypical class of PAMPs. LPSs are specifically recognized by TLR4, a recognition receptor of the innate immune system. Other PAMPs include bacterial flagellin (recognized by TLR5), lipoteichoic acid from Gram-positive bacteria, peptidoglycan, and nucleic acid variants normally associated with viruses, such as double-stranded RNA, recognized by TLR3 or unmethylated CpG motifs, recognized by TLR9. DAMPs, also known as alarmins, are molecules released by stressed cells undergoing necrosis that act as endogenous danger signals to promote and exacerbate the immune and inflammatory response. DAMPs vary greatly depending on the type of cell (epithelial, mesenchymal, etc.) and injured tissue. Some endogenous danger signals include heat-shock proteins, HMGB1 (high-mobility group box 1), reactive oxygen intermediates, extracellular matrix breakdown products such as hyaluronan fragments, neuromediators, and cytokines like the interferons (IFNs). Non-protein DAMPs include ATP, uric acid, heparin sulfate, and DNA. Furthermore, accumulating evidence supports correlation between alarmins and changes in the microbiome. Increased serum or plasma levels of these DAMPs have been associated with many inflammatory diseases, including gastric and intestinal inflammatory diseases, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), sepsis and multiple organ failure, allergies particularly in the lungs, atherosclerosis, age-associated insulin resistance, arthritis, lupus, neuro-inflammation/degeneration and more recently in tumors, which is particularly interesting with the emergence of immunotherapies. Therapeutic strategies are being developed to modulate the expression of these DAMPs for the treatment of these diseases.A vast number of reviews have already been published in this area; thus, in an effort to not duplicate what has already been written, we will focus on recent discoveries particularly in disease models that are epidemic in Western society: intestinal chronic inflammatory diseases including GVHD and its relationship with the microbiome, chronic infectious diseases, allergies, autoimmune diseases, neuroinflammation and cancers. We will also focus on the basic cellular roles of macrophages, T cells and B cells. This research topic brings together sixteen articles that provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of DAMPS/alarmins and their regulation and subsequent immunologically driven responses.

Immunogenic Cell Death in Cancer: From Benchside Research to Bedside

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198382 Year: Pages: 145 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-838-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-07 16:12:31
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Classically, anti-cancer therapies have always been applied with the primary aim of tumor debulking achieved through widespread induction of cancer cell death. While the role of host immune system is frequently considered as host protective in various (antigen-bearing) pathologies or infections yet in case of cancer overtime it was proposed that the host immune system either plays no role in therapeutic efficacy or plays a limited role that is therapeutically unemployable. The concept that the immune system is dispensable for the efficacy of anticancer therapies lingered on for a substantial amount of time; not only because evidence supporting the claim that anti-cancer immunity played a role were mainly contradictory, but also largely because it was considered acceptable (and sometimes still is) to test anticancer therapies in immunodeficient mice (i.e. SCID/athymic mice lacking adaptive immune system). This latter practice played a detrimental role in appreciating the role of anticancer immunity in cancer therapy. This scenario is epitomized by the fact that for a long time the very existence of cancer-associated antigens or cancer-associated ‘danger signaling’ remained controversial. However, over last several years this dogmatic view has been considerably modified. The existence of cancer-associated antigens and ‘danger signaling’ has been proven to be incontrovertible. These developments have together paved way for the establishment of the attractive concept of “immunogenic cell death” (ICD). It has been established that a restricted class of chemotherapeutics/targeted therapeutics, radiotherapy, photodynamic therapy and certain oncolytic viruses can induce a form of cancer cell death called ICD which is accompanied by spatiotemporally defined emission of danger signals. These danger signals along with other factors help cancer cells undergoing ICD to activate host innate immune cells, which in turn activate T cell-based immunity that helps eradicate live (or residual) surviving cancer cells. The emergence of ICD has been marred by some controversy. ICD has been criticized to be either experimental model or setting-specific or mostly a concept based on rodent studies that may have very limited implications for clinical application. However, in recent times it has emerged (through mainly retrospective or prognostic studies) that ICD can work in various human clinical settings hinting towards clinical applicability of ICD. However a widespread consensus on this issue is still transitional. In the current Research Topic we aimed to organize and intensify a discussion that strives to bring together the academic and clinical research community in order to provide a background to the current state-of-the-art in ICD associated bench-side research and to initiate fruitful discussions on present and future prospects of ICD translating towards the clinical, bedside reality.

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