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From Darwinian Metaphysics towards Understanding the Evolution of Evolutionary Mechanisms - A Historical and Philosophical Analysis of Gene-Darwinism and Universal Darwinism

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ISBN: 9783863950064 Year: Pages: 502 DOI: 10.17875/gup2012-515 Language: English
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Biology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2012-04-11 21:20:13
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Although Charles Darwin predicted that his theory “would give zest to [...] metaphysics,” even he would be astonished at the variety of paths his theory has in fact taken. This holds with regard to both gene-Darwinism, a purified Darwinian approach biologizing the social sciences, and process- Darwinism found in the disciplines of psychology, philosophy of science, and economics. Although Darwinism is often linked to highly confirmed biological theories, some of its interpretations seem to profit from tautological claims as well, where scientific reputation cloaks ideological usage. This book discusses central tenets of Darwinism historically as well as systematically, for example the history of different Darwinian paradigms, the units-of-selection debate, and the philosophical problem of induction as basis of metaphysical Darwinism. Crucially the book addresses the Darwinian claim that evolution is governed by an immutable and unrelentingly cruel law of natural selection. Paradoxically, Darwin’s theory is a static, non-evolutionary theory of evolution. The current book sketches the historical background and provides suggestions that may help to replace this approach by the idea of an evolution of evolutionary mechanisms (see Escher’s “Drawing Hands” on the cover). This view even suggests a tendency to overcome the blindness of the knowledge acquisition of primordial Darwinian processes and allows for some freedom from external environments. This book first develops a radically Darwinian approach, then criticises this approach from within. Even Darwinism has a tendency to transcend itself. Although the book addresses several empirical issues, it does not challenge particular findings. Instead it builds on many insights of Darwinism and provides a proposal for interpreting known empirical evidence in a different light. It should help pave the way for further developing an understanding of nature that transcends Darwinian metaphysics.

Keywords

Darwinism --- Evolution

Divine Name Verification: An Essay on Anti-Darwinism, Intelligent Design, and the Computational Nature of Reality

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ISBN: 9780615839080 Year: Pages: 424 DOI: 10.21983/P3.0043.1.00 Language: English
Publisher: punctum books
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-12 09:24:43
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In this book, Noah Horwitz argues that the age of Darwinism is ending. Building on the ontological insights of his first book Reality in the Name of God in order to intervene into the intelligent design versus evolution debate, Horwitz argues in favor of intelligent design by attempting to demonstrate the essentially computational nature of reality. In doing so, Horwitz draws on the work of many of today’s key computational theorists (e.g., Wolfram, Chaitin, Friedkin, Lloyd, Schmidhuber, etc.) and articulates and defends a computational definition of life, and in the process lays out key criticisms of Darwinism. He does so in part by incorporating the insights of the Lamarckian theories of Lynn Margulis and Maximo Sandin. The possible criticisms of a computationalist view from both a developmental perspective (e.g., Lewontin, Jablonka, West-Eberhard, etc.) and chaos theory (e.g., Brian Goodwin) are addressed. In doing so, Horwitz engages critically with the work of intelligent design theorists like William Dembksi. At the same time, he attempts to define the nature of the Speculative Realist turn in contemporary Continental Philosophy and articulates criticisms of leading figures and movements associated with it, such as Object-Oriented Ontology, Quentin Meillassoux, and Ray Brassier. Ultimately, Horwitz attempts to show that rather than heading towards heat death, existence itself will find its own apotheosis at the Omega Point. However, that final glorification is only possible given that all of reality is compressible into the divine name itself.

La nature de l’entraide : Pierre Kropotkine et les fondements biologiques de l'anarchisme

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ISBN: 9782847887563 DOI: 10.4000/books.enseditions.5112 Language: French
Publisher: ENS Éditions
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:31
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Nous montrons dans ce livre comment le savant et anarchiste russe P. Kropotkine (1842-1921) a lutté à la fin du xixe siècle contre le social-darwinisme, cette utilisation du modèle darwinien de la sélection naturelle ayant pour but de justifier l’inégalité sociale. Son originalité réside dans le fait qu’il a combattu ce discours idéologique sur son propre terrain, celui d’une continuité entre nature et société. En revenant vers Darwin pour souligner la fonction évolutionnaire de l’entraide tout en lui ajoutant les principaux concepts lamarckiens, Kropotkine a bâti un naturalisme critique, capable d’expliquer avec cohérence le passage de la nature à l’histoire, et encore pertinent pour lutter contre les justifications idéologiques du marché et de l’État recourant à une vision pessimiste de la nature humaine.

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach - Bibliographie seiner Schriften

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Book Series: Schriften zur Göttinger Universitätsgeschichte ISBN: 9783941875647 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.17875/gup2010-500 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Biology --- Science (General) --- Education --- Bibliography
Added to DOAB on : 2012-04-11 21:20:13
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This bibliography documents the printed works of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752–1840) and makes them accessible for research purposes. Blumenbach was Professor of Medicine and Natural History at the University of Göttingen. He was one of the leading exponents of the revolutionary change of the geo-biological concept of the world at the turn of the 18th to the 19th century. His works exemplarily show the interactions between the life sciences, the humanities and the social sciences of his day.

Reinheit als Differenz Identität und Alterität in Max Frischs frühem Erzählwerk

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ISBN: 9783034013642 Year: Pages: 392 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_625150 Language: German
Publisher: Chronos Verlag Grant: Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) - OAPEN-CH - 170340
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-08 11:01:28
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Purity as Difference Identity and Alterity in Max Frisch`s early fiction This study investigates the early fiction of Max Frisch, previously only margin-ally discussed, in particular his first novel, «Jürg Reinhart. Eine sommerliche Schicksalsfahrt» (1934), the novella «Antwort aus der Stille» (1937), as well as the sequel to the Reinhart story, «J’adore ce qui me brûle oder Die Schwierigen». It uses previously unknown sources to reconstruct the creative origins of these works. Deploying a discourse analysis, this book employs analytical techniques from gender and postcolonial studies to deconstruct is-sues of ethnicity, nationalism, gender, and class. The three texts, and their constructions of identity and alterity are contextualized within the contested zone of ‹purity› and ‹difference› and relevant fields of discourse. «Antwort aus der Stille» is investigated within the Alpine discourse, including its nationalistic, gender-political and sexist extensions, «Jürg Reinhart» in the anti-Semitic, Orientalist, Balkan and Slavic discourses, and «J’adore ce qui me brûle» in the contemporary discourse of emancipation and gender issues, and especially in the discourse of eugenics and its Social Darwinist implications.

Embodiment in Evolution and Culture

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ISBN: 9783161547362 9783161549014 Year: DOI: 10.1628/9783161549014 Language: English
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101760
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-26 11:01:50
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From its beginnings, the theory of evolution has unsettled fundamental anthropological assumptions about the place of human beings in nature. The integration of human origins into natural history by Darwinism was countered by the philosophical anthropologies of the 20th century. Their attempts were to hold on even more resolutely to the special status of humans as beings 'open towards the world'. Today, evolutionary and philosophical anthropology have moved closer together via the paradigm of embodiment. Building on embodied cognitive science, this volume aims to establish how far the human mind and human cultural cognition can be attributed to the structures of human existence, structures which have emerged in the course of evolution and have in turn been affected by culture. The traditional dualism of nature and culture is transformed into an explanation of an evolutionary process in which body and mind are understood to be intertwined and mutually constitutive.

China Inside Out

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ISBN: 9789637326141 9786155053962 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Central European University Press
Subject: Ethnology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-05-19 15:18:48
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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The ""war on terror"" has generated a scramble for expertise on Islamic or Asian ""culture"" and revived support for area studies, but it has done so at the cost of reviving the kinds of dangerous generalizations that area studies have rightly been accused of. This book provides a much-needed perspective on area studies, a perspective that is attentive to both manifestations of ""traditional culture"" and the new global relationships in which they are being played out. The authors shake off the sha...

The Origin and Early Evolution of Life: Prebiotic Chemistry of Biomolecules

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ISBN: 9783039216062 9783039216079 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-607-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Studying the origin of life is one of man’s greatest achievements over the last sixty years. The fields of interest encompassed by this quest are multiple and interdisciplinary: chemistry, physics, biology, biochemistry, mathematics, geology but also statistics, atmospheric science, meteorology, oceanography, and astrophysics. Recent scientific discoveries, such as water on Mars and the existence of super-Earths with atmospheres similar to primordial Earth, have pushed researchers to simulate prebiotic conditions in explaining the abiotic formation of molecules essential to life. This collection of articles offers an overview of recent discoveries in the field of prebiotic chemistry of biomolecules, their formation and selection, and the evolution of complex chemical systems.

Keywords

origin of life --- systems chemistry --- Chemomimesis --- Molecular Darwinism --- origin of life --- prebiotic chemistry --- thiol-rich peptides --- cysteine --- aminonitriles --- imidazoles --- origin of life --- prebiotic chemistry --- nucleotide and nucleoside synthesis --- protein design --- novel metalloproteins --- binary patterned amino acid sequences --- prebiotic chemistry --- population growth --- replication --- growth order --- Darwinian evolution --- selection --- origin of life --- abiogenesis --- carbon fixation --- hydrothermal vents --- electrochemistry --- reduction --- digit multiplicity --- information --- transmission --- encoding --- translation --- diversity --- function --- origin of life --- layered double hydroxide (LDH) clay --- pentose diphosphate --- pentopyranose nucleic acid --- arabinopyranose nucleic acid --- RNA --- base pairing --- purine precursor --- inosine --- AICAR --- peptide/RNA world --- prebiotic information system --- translation and the genetic code --- bridge peptide and aaRS --- ribozyme and tRNA --- tRNA and mRNA --- coevolution of translation machine and the genetic code --- MVC architecture pattern and biological information --- numerical codons --- AnyLogic software for computer simulation of translation machine --- phosphoryl transfer --- metabolism --- energy currency --- mixed anhydride --- origin of life --- hypercycle --- Monte Carlo --- prebiotic chemistry --- carbamic acid --- carbon dioxide-ammonia ices --- infrared spectra --- anharmonicity --- origin of life --- metabolism --- phosphates --- network expansion simulation --- thermodynamic bottleneck --- molecular clocks --- ab initio molecular dynamics --- catalysis --- prebiotic soup --- origins of life --- aldol reaction --- mechanochemistry --- minerals --- monosaccharides --- prebiotic chemistry --- prebiotic polymerization --- nucleotide oligomerization --- abasic oligomers --- nucleotide stability --- stability as a selection pressure --- dry-wet cycles --- genetic code origin --- tRNA accretion model --- tRNA-synthetase --- metabolism --- thioester --- nucleotidyltransferases --- early peptides --- ribosome --- n/a

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