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Basiskomponenten der Persönlichkeit

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ISBN: 9783863950392 Year: Pages: 165 DOI: 10.17875/gup2011-465 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2012-04-11 21:20:13
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Thurstone's principle of simple structure is rejected and replaced by its converse, the principle of complex structure. Varimax, the popular simple structure rotation of factors, is replaced by varimin, a novel procedure taking account of the complexity of investigated variables (s. Ertel, 2011). An exploratory factor analysis of a similarity matrix of 16 kinship terms showed that expected semantic features (sex, generation, nuclear family, lineality) manifest themselves by varimin rotation,while distorted clusters of kinship terms are obtained by varimax rotation. Varimin rotation was also applied to five PCA-factors obtained from 30 facet variables of NEO-PI-R (Ostendorf & Angleitner, 2004). As expected, variminrotated factors do not replicate the Big-Five factors neuroticism, extraversion, etc., they rather reveal basic componential features (usually called „dimensions‟): activation level (high-low), activation slope (ascending-descending), source of regulation (endodynamic- exodynamic), phenomenal quality (endomodal-exomodal), and functionality (eufunctional vs. dysfunctional). The well-known Big-Five factors represent clusters of those features rather than simple dimensions. Sensation seeking, internalexternal control, i. e. further constructs of simple structure- oriented research, are likewise conceivable as patterns of functioning based on those five componential features. The validity of the five features obtained by varimin has largely been confirmed by rankings of the 30 NEO-PI-R facets using the features as judgmental criteria. Replacing Thurstonian simple structure by procedures aiming at complex structure might help to generate a systemic architecture in the personality and individual differences domains. More psychological functioning might be made transparent by modelling patterns of basic features.

Data-Based Radiation Oncology - Design of Clinical Trials

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454389 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-438-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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In radiation oncology as in many other specialties clinical trials are essential to investigate new therapy approaches. Usually, preparation for a prospective clinical trial is extremely time consuming until ethics approval is obtained. To test a new treatment usually many years pass before it can be implemented in the routine care. During that time, already new interventions emerge, new drugs appear on the market, technical & physical innovations are being implemented, novel biology driven concepts are translated into clinical approaches while we are still investigating the ones from years ago. Another problem is associated with molecular diagnostics and the growing amount of tumor specific biomarkers which allows for a better stratification of patient subgroups. On the other side, this may result in a much longer time for patient recruiting and consequently in larger multicenter trials. Moreover, all of the relevant data must be readily available for treatment decision making, treatment as well as follow-up, and ultimately for trial evaluation. This challenges even more for agreed standards in data acquisition, quality and management. How could we change the way currently clinical trials are performed in a way they are safe and ethically justifiable and speed up the initiation process, so we can provide new and better treatments faster for our patients?Further, while we rely on various quantitative information handling distributed, large heterogeneous amounts of data efficiently is very important. Thus data management becomes a strong focus. A good infrastructure helps to plan, tailor and conduct clinical trials in a way they are easy and quickly analyzable.In this research topic we want to discuss new ideas for intelligent trial designs and concepts for data management.

Branching and Rooting Out with a CT Scanner: The Why, the How, and the Outcomes, Present and Possibly Future

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197910 Year: Pages: 91 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-791-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-03 17:04:57
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Until recently, a majority of the applications of X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning in plant sciences remained descriptive; some included a quantification of the plant materials when the root-soil isolation or branch-leaf separation was satisfactory; and a few involved the modeling of plant biology processes or the assessment of treatment or disease effects on plant biomass and structures during growth. In the last decade, repeated CT scanning of the same plants was reported in an increasing number of studies in which moderate doses of X-rays had been used. Besides the general objectives of Frontiers in Plant Science research topics, “Branching and Rooting Out with a CT Scanner” was proposed to meet specific objectives: (i) providing a non-technical update on knowledge about the application of CT scanning technology to plants, starting with the type of CT scanning data collected (CT images vs. CT numbers) and their processing in the graphical and numerical approaches; (ii) drawing the limits of the CT scanning approach, which because it is based on material density can distinguish materials with contrasting or moderately overlapping densities (e.g., branches vs. leaves, roots vs. non-organic soils) but not the others (e.g., roots vs. organic soils); (iii) explaining with a sufficient level of detail the main procedures used for graphical, quantitative and statistical analyses of plant CT scanning data, including fractal complexity measures and statistics appropriate for repeated plant CT scanning, in experiments where the research hypotheses are about biological processes such as light interception by canopies, root disease development and plant growth under stress conditions; (iv) comparing plant CT scanning with an alternative technology that applies to plants, such as the phenomics platforms which target leaf canopies; and (v) providing current and potential users of plant CT scanning with up-to-date information and exhaustive documentation, including clear perspectives and well-defined goals for the future, for them to be even more efficient or most efficient from start in their research work.

Smart Sustainable Manufacturing Systems

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039212019 / 9783039212026 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-202-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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With the advent of disruptive digital technologies, companies are facing unprecedented challenges and opportunities. Advanced manufacturing systems are of paramount importance in making key enabling technologies and new products more competitive, affordable, and accessible, as well as for fostering their economic and social impact. The manufacturing industry also serves as an innovator for sustainability since automation coupled with advanced manufacturing technologies have helped manufacturing practices transition into the circular economy. To that end, this Special Issue of the journal Applied Sciences, devoted to the broad field of Smart Sustainable Manufacturing Systems, explores recent research into the concepts, methods, tools, and applications for smart sustainable manufacturing, in order to advance and promote the development of modern and intelligent manufacturing systems. In light of the above, this Special Issue is a collection of the latest research on relevant topics and addresses the current challenging issues associated with the introduction of smart sustainable manufacturing systems. Various topics have been addressed in this Special Issue, which focuses on the design of sustainable production systems and factories; industrial big data analytics and cyberphysical systems; intelligent maintenance approaches and technologies for increased operating life of production systems; zero-defect manufacturing strategies, tools and methods towards online production management; and connected smart factories.

Geoinformatics in Citizen Science

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ISBN: 9783039210725 / 9783039210732 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-073-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The book features contributions that report original research in the theoretical, technological, and social aspects of geoinformation methods, as applied to supporting citizen science. Specifically, the book focuses on the technological aspects of the field and their application toward the recruitment of volunteers and the collection, management, and analysis of geotagged information to support volunteer involvement in scientific projects. Internationally renowned research groups share research in three areas: First, the key methods of geoinformatics within citizen science initiatives to support scientists in discovering new knowledge in specific application domains or in performing relevant activities, such as reliable geodata filtering, management, analysis, synthesis, sharing, and visualization; second, the critical aspects of citizen science initiatives that call for emerging or novel approaches of geoinformatics to acquire and handle geoinformation; and third, novel geoinformatics research that could serve in support of citizen science.

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