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Nutrition and Chronic Conditions

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ISBN: 9783038976028 / 9783038976035 Year: Pages: 226 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-603-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Cardiovascular --- Internal medicine --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-05 10:10:24
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The effects of nutrition in chronic conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, stroke, and inflammatory bowel disease continue to generate interest among researchers. This stems from the fact that diet is a modifiable risk factor for these diseases, which manifest either as single entities or in co-morbid states in individuals and populations around the world. In particular, the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease is on the rise, especially in developed countries, but also in developing economies, partly due to lifestyle changes, including diet. For example, ischaemic heart disease is the leading cause of death globally. When combined with stroke, these conditions accounted for 15 million deaths in 2015 and are the world’s greatest killers (WHO, 2017). Furthermore, WHO (2016), reported that there were an estimated 422 million adults who were living with diabetes in 2014. This is significantly higher than the 108 million in 1980, representing a rise in worldwide diabetes prevalence from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014 among the adult population.These chronic conditions and their associated complications have significant implications for morbidity and mortality, and incur huge costs to the health services around the world. The composition of the diet, the proportion and types of macronutrients and micronutrients present in the diet are major contributors to these diseases. In addition, the beneficial effects of nutritional interventions have been well documented although differences remain among researchers with respect to their overall impact. The evaluation of the role of nutrition in chronic conditions draws on its effect on body weight and body composition, glycaemic and insulin excursions, vascular remodeling, and gastro-intestinal dysfunction.Therefore, this Special Issue on “Nutrition and Chronic Conditions” aims to evaluate the effect of nutrition in the development, care, and management of chronic conditions. The primary conditions of interest are diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, stroke, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Thinking About Dementia

Authors: ---
Book Series: Studies in Medical Anthropology ISBN: 9780813538020 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Rutgers University Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101109
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-25 11:01:47
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Bringing together essays by nineteen respected scholars, this volume approaches dementia from a variety of angles, exploring its historical, psychological, and philosophical implications. The authors employ a cross-cultural perspective that is based on ethnographic fieldwork and focuses on questions of age, mind, voice, self, loss, temporality, memory, and affect.Taken together, the essays make four important and interrelated contributions to our understanding of the mental status of the elderly. First, cross-cultural data show that the aging process, while biologically influenced, is also culturally constructed. Second, ethnographic reports raise questions about the diagnostic criteria used for defining the elderly as demented. Third, case studies show how a diagnosis affects a patient's treatment in both clinical and familial settings. Finally, the collection highlights the gap that separates current biological understandings of aging from its cultural meanings.

Keywords

Anthropology --- dementia --- age --- anthropology --- health --- medicine

Spatial memory - a unique window into healthy and pathological ageing

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193868 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-386-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The global population aged over 60 is set to rise dramatically in the coming decades. In many countries, the older population now faces the prospect of spending a quarter of their lives aged over 65, and a significant proportion will have to cope with cognitive decline associated with normal ageing or with dementia disorders. Given that these fundamental demographic changes will pose a significant challenge to health care systems, a detailed understanding of age-related cognitive and neurobiological changes is essential in helping elderly populations maintain cognitive performance. In addition, developing sensitive biomarkers to identify those at risk of developing dementia is crucial for early and effective interventions. To make inferences about the ageing process from the animal model back to the human, rigorous behavioral paradigms must be used to ensure that the same function is being examined across species. Given that similar navigational paradigms can easily be applied to humans and animals, recent years have seen an expansion of studies attempting to bridge the gap between age-related changes in animal and human spatial cognition. These studies begin to suggest that disruptions in spatial computations are among the earliest indicators of impending cognitive decline. In addition, although many animal studies have identified pathological mechanisms with paradigms involving spatial navigation, these mechanisms support many nonspatial cognitive functions as well. As a consequence, a successful characterization of how spatial processing changes in the ageing brain could reveal fundamental effects of cognitive ageing that could inform about general mechanisms underlying decline in perception, mnemonic processing and multisensory integration.

Unraveling Neuroprotective and Neurodegenerative Signals in Neurodegeneration

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199563 Year: Pages: 131 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-956-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Proteinopathy is a collective term used to classified neurodegenerative diseases associated with the progressive accumulation of toxic protein molecules in specific brain regions. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a well-known proteinopathy characterize by the accumulation of A peptides and tau proteins. The accumulation of these toxic molecules in the brain starts many years before any clinical presentation, being the onset in the range of 65 to 72 years of age. Therefore, age is considered a risk factor due, in part, to the loss of molecular competence to clear the brain from these toxic protein molecules. This fact, supported by years of research, demonstrates that brain cells activate a neuroprotective mechanism upon detection of a pathobiological signal that (if the detrimental conditions persist) precedes the activation of the neurodegeneration pathway. The progressive brain region specific neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases also indicates that the transition from neuroprotection to neurodegeneration is individually triggered in cells of the affected brain region. Thus, molecular understanding of the pathophysiology associated with proteinopathies needs to take in consideration this intricate transition process, especially when genomics and proteomics approaches are used. Research directed to understand the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases uncovered the putative role of different molecular mechanisms associated with neurodegeneration. Among the molecular mechanisms identified are proteolysis, epigenetics, microRNA, transcriptional regulation, innate and adaptive immune system, phagocytosis and autophagocytosis, exo/endocytosis, unfolded protein response, cytoskeleton defects, unregulated signaling molecules (i.e. kinases and phosphatases), trafficking molecules, cell cycle, neurogenesis/neurodevelopment, among others. Interestingly, all these molecular mechanisms have been identified through the analysis of tissue from animal models or human post-mortem pathologically confirmed cases, but their specific role in neurodegeneration is still unclear. Thus, it is plausible to consider that all these pathways play a role at a particular phase of the neurodegeneration process or, simply, are drive by the agonal state of the tissue examined. Hence, an important conundrum that researchers face today is the use of heterogeneous brain tissue samples in the quest to identify biomarkers associated with the pathogenesis or pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. At this junction of the neurodegeneration field, this research topic aim to critically assess the current literature on molecular mechanisms associated with neurodegeneration and the approaches used to dissect their putative pathophysiological role. The studies could include the interplay between neuroprotective and neurodegenerative signals in neurodegeneration, dissecting the molecular role of identified biomarkers, bioinformatics tools that facilitate data mining, dissecting pathways or molecular mechanisms, stages of protein aggregation (oligomers vs tangles; who did it?), aging brain and brain fitness (A natural selection process), adaptive protein response to environmental insults and cellular signals, expression profile associated with neurological disorders and health. Therefore, this Research Topic is expected to cover a wide range of subjects related to unravel the interplay between neuroprotective and neurodegenerative signals in neurodegeneration.

Nutrition and prevention of Alzheimer's disease

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197194 Year: Pages: 76 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-719-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Altered metabolism is known to be associated with a higher incidence of Alzheimer´s disease (AD). Diabetes type 2, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are considered risk factors for the development of dementias, including AD. These metabolic diseases may have a genetic predisposition, but most of them are caused by environmental factors and life-style. Most research has focused on the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) and sweetened beverages that induce obesity. Importantly, a HFD can also trigger oxidative stress, neuro-inflammation and cognitive decline. Less is known, however, about beneficial effects of diet on cognition, such as slowing the progression or preventing AD by ingesting whole fruits, vegetables, fish and oil. It is important to highlight the difference between vitamin/mineral supplements and whole food, as it appears that the former are clinically ineffective, while multiple ingredients in the latter act synergistically to improve cognition. As AD is a disease of slow progression, therapies should start several decades before clinical symptoms can be observed; one strategy can be the ingestion of healthy food in those subjects with one or more risk factors (genetic, environmental, life-style) already in their 40s, just when some brain metabolic disturbances start to develop. This dietary therapy can overcome the increased reactive oxygen species, protein deposition and synaptic failure, characteristic of AD. This research topic will cover a range of research articles, case studies, opinion and mini-reviews, all focused on describing the damaging effects of an industrial diet on cognition as well as on highlighting the beneficial effects of a healthy diet to prevent AD. We believe that we still have time to fight against the negative impact of our industrialized cultures, and adopt better eating habits, increase exercise and slow down our life style to prevent increasing dementia in the aging population. Also, all these topics has been a product of intensives investigations, with a great life hope, and we hope you all enjoy reading this e-book.

Keywords

Cognition --- Diet --- Vitamins --- Minerals --- Functional Food --- Dementia --- Aging --- biomarkers --- diagnosis

The Vestibular System in Cognitive and Memory Processes in Mammals

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197446 Year: Pages: 246 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-744-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Since the beginning of life, all plant and animal kingdoms have been developed or modified based on gravity along with atmospheric composition and solar radiation existing on Earth. Gravity is mainly encoded by the otolithic sensors of the vestibular system but its role has been largely underestimated in favor of the vestibular semicircular canals and reduced to oculomotor and postural coordination. Over the last decade, it has been demonstrated that sensory information provided by the vestibular system is crucial in spatial-memory processes in rats and humans. More recently a role in attention processes has been raised. This topic aims to report and demonstrate the role and integration of vestibular information in cognitive processes in rodent models and human at the behavioral, imaging and electrophysiological levels.

Aging and Mental Health

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451883 Year: Pages: 139 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-188-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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People are progressively ageing all over the world, and it is estimated that the number of persons aged 60 or over will more than triple by 2100. This emerging population will experience an inevitable rise in dementia, mental health problems and chronic diseases. According to GBD (2010), neuropsychiatric disorders among older adults account for 6.6% of the total disability (DALYs) for this age group, with 15% suffering from a mental disorder. Multiple social, psychological and biological factors are determinant of mental health, as well as life stressors. Among these, the lack of independence, limited mobility, chronic diseases, pain, frailty or other mental and physical problems require long-term care. Beyond this, the elderly are more prone to experience events such as bereavement, a drop in socio-economic status, disability, which leads to isolation, loss of independence, loneliness and psychological distress. Mental health problems and needs assessment by health-care professionals and older people themselves are under-recognised, and the stigma surrounding mental illness makes people reluctant to seek help. The early investigation and diagnosis of these situations are crucial, as well as prior management with an important combination of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions, in conjunction with caregivers' and families' support. The present book aims to contribute to the development of knowledge in Aging and Mental Health, taking different approaches from authors, coming from diverse scientific fields, with the final goal being the improvement of quality of life and healthy aging for this growing population.

Biology of Cognitive Aging: Model Systems, Technologies and Beyond

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451449 Year: Pages: 145 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-144-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Genetics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Welcome! We, humans, tend to experience forgetfulness when we get old. The forgetfulness may become more serious memory impairment, dementia. Presumably, we have known it for a long time, but we still do not know the mechanism behind. A normal part of forgetfulness is called age-related memory impairment (AMI), which is considered the first step towards mild cognitive impairment (MCI; transition state) and dementia (disease state). The majority of dementia is attributable to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Progression to dementia occurs at a high rate in patients with AMI. This eBook covers exciting but yet challenging field of cognitive aging. AMI is specific to neural tissues of the brain and is considered to be segmental aging. It happens not only to humans but also to a variety of species. Learning and memory are vulnerable to aging in a wide variety of model species, including worms, fruit flies, insects, snails, fishes, and rodents. Aging specifically reduces the ability to learn new information but leaves “old” memories and procedural memory intact. A comparative approach including the use of model systems seems to facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to AMI and AD. We advocate research on model systems. This eBook also provides the first manuscript co-authored with an AD patient to create a feedback loop from patients incorporated into research. We also included a manuscript on the semi-automated system that was inspired by such a feedback. Those may place a nice flavor to this exciting series of comparative research on cognitive aging. We hope you enjoy this eBook. Warm regards, Shin Murakami, Ph.D.Welcome! We, humans, tend to experience forgetfulness when we get old. The forgetfulness may become more serious memory impairment, dementia. Presumably, we have known it for a long time, but we still do not know the mechanism behind. A normal part of forgetfulness is called age-related memory impairment (AMI), which is considered the first step towards mild cognitive impairment (MCI; transition state) and dementia (disease state). The majority of dementia is attributable to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Progression to dementia occurs at a high rate in patients with AMI. This eBook covers exciting but yet challenging field of cognitive aging. AMI is specific to neural tissues of the brain and is considered to be segmental aging. It happens not only to humans but also to a variety of species. Learning and memory are vulnerable to aging in a wide variety of model species, including worms, fruit flies, insects, snails, fishes, and rodents. Aging specifically reduces the ability to learn new information but leaves “old” memories and procedural memory intact. A comparative approach including the use of model systems seems to facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to AMI and AD. We advocate research on model systems. This eBook also provides the first manuscript co-authored with an AD patient to create a feedback loop from patients incorporated into research. We also included a manuscript on the semi-automated system that was inspired by such a feedback. Those may place a nice flavor to this exciting series of comparative research on cognitive aging. We hope you enjoy this eBook. Warm regards, Shin Murakami, Ph.D.

Human and Animal Models for Translational Research on Neurodegeneration: Challenges and Opportunities From South America

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454945 Year: Pages: 217 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-494-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Neurodegenerative diseases are the most frequent cause of dementia, representing a burden for public health systems (especially in middle and middle-high income countries). Although most research on this issue is concentrated in first-world centers, growing efforts in South America are affording important breakthroughs. This emerging agenda poses new challenges for the region but also new opportunities for the field. This book aims to integrate the community of experts across the globe and the region, and to establish new challenges and developments for future investigation. We present research focused on neurodegenerative research in South America. We introduce studies assessing the interplay among genetic, neural, and behavioral dimensions of these diseases, as well as articles on vulnerability factors, comparisons of findings from various countries, and works promoting multicenter and collaborative networking. More generally, our book covers a broad scope of human-research approaches (behavioral assessment, neuroimaging, electromagnetic techniques, brain connectivity, peripheral measures), animal methodologies (genetics, epigenetics, proteomics, metabolomics, other molecular biology tools), species (all human and non-human animals, sporadic, and genetic versions), and article types (original research, review, and opinion papers). Through this wide-ranging proposal, we hope to introduce a fresh approach to the challenges and opportunities of research on neurodegeneration in South America.

Dementia, Frailty and Aging

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455232 Year: Pages: 121 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-523-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The number of older subjects is rapidly increasingly worldwide. As a consequence, the nature of clinical conditions is also changing. Traditional medicine and models of care have been based on the evaluation and treatment of single and usually acute conditions occurring in relatively young individuals. Today, the usual clinical manifestation of diseases is characterized by multiple and often chronic conditions affecting older people. In this scenario, frailty and dementia have been triggering special interest both in research and clinical settings due to their high prevalence, impact on the individual’s quality of life, and consequences for public health worldwide. These conditions aptly reflect the complexity of age-related pathological conditions, finding as causal factor a myriad of heterogeneous, interacting, and often still unclear pathophysiological processes. Indeed, their study is strongly affected by the difficulty to differentiate the effects of a normal aging process from eventual pathological deviations of the underlying systems. Their occurrence and trajectories over time are strongly affected by a wide array of factors and determinants that can be hardly attributed to the deficit/involvement of single biological systems and/or health domains. Moreover, environment and social factors also play a key role in the determination of phenotypes.The present Research Topic is aimed at widening our understanding of the frailty and dementia phenomena occurring with aging, in order to improve the clinical and public health approaches to these burdening conditions.

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